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Oxidation Technologies News

Providing news and updates on the Ozone industry

  • Updated Calibration Chamber

    Recently Oxidation Tech updated our calibration chamber and process.  We have been using a smaller chamber or individual processes to calibrate each sensor we receive one by one.  With our new calibration chamber, we can calibrate as many as 10-15 ozone monitors at one time.

    Calibrate ozone monitors Ozone Calibration Chamber

    This calibration chamber still uses our Thermo Fischer Transfer Standard Ozone Analyzer to measure and control ozone levels inside the chamber.  However, with the use of an external ozone generator and automated control system a precise ozone level can be maintained inside the chamber at all times.  This saves time and potentially provides a higher quality, more accurate calibration for your device.

    Ozone exposure chamber Complete O3 Calibration Chamber/O3 Exposure Chamber

    Our ozone calibration chamber can also be used to high range calibrations up to 1,000 ppm, or can be used for ozone exposure testing.  As this sealed chamber has great capacity and automation any device a customer may need to be exposed to ozone can be placed in the chamber to be exposed to known and tightly controlled ozone levels.

    We also offer ozone exposure testing for higher range ozone levels, and lower range ozone levels in a smaller chamber.  Ozone exposure chambers are also a part of our standard product line as these are a popular requirement for many material testing facilities.

    Should you have any questions on ozone calibrations, please contact our office.  We would be glad to help with any ozone monitor calibration.

     

  • Measure ozone production rates real-time

    Tracking performance of an ozone system real-time is valuable for pilot test and even full-scale ozone systems and may be easier than you think.

    Ozone system output is measured in g/hr or lb/day.  These values indicate the production rate of an ozone system.  Knowing the production rate of your ozone system real-time can have value in tracking system performance and preventing system failures by spotting potential issues before they start.

    To calculate ozone production both the oxygen flow-rate and ozone concentration must be measured.  Both of these values can be measured real-time with digital devices installed inline with your ozone system.

    ozone pilot system example install with measuring devices Ozone generation system example with a Mass Flow Meter, UV Ozone Analyzer, and Oxygen Purity Meter installed inline.

    Mass Flow Meter:

    Mass Flom Meter GFM GFM Mass Flow Meter

    The GFM Mass Flow Meter will measure and display oxygen flow through your system real-time with a pressure compensated flow rate.  A mass flow meter measures the overall mass of gas passing through the device using ultrasonic technology.  This ensures reliable and repeatable flow measurements that do not require any conversions for temperature or pressure changes to the gas stream.  An LCD display or digital output can be provided to record oxygen flow rate.

    UV Ozone Analyzer:

    UV-HCR High Concentration Ozone Analyzer UV-HCR Ozone Analzyer

    The UV-HCR Ozone Analyzer will measure ozone concentration real-time to indicate the actual concentration of ozone produced by your ozone generator.   The UV Analyzer uses UV absorption technology to measure ozone concentration.  This unit provides an LCD display or digital output to record ozone concentration.

    A sidestream of ozone gas must flow through the UV ozone analyzer (1-2 LPM).  Some of the ozone will be destroyed in the UV lamp measurement tube, the remaining must be converted back to oxygen safely using an ozone destruct device.

    Oxygen Purity Meter:

    OXM-12L Oxygen Purity Meter OXL-12L Oxygen Purity Meter

    The OXM-12L Oxygen Purity meter will measure oxygen purity real-time to ensure the oxygen purity remains stable and sufficient for efficient ozone production.  Ultrasonic technology is used to measure the composition of gas and ensure oxygen purity remains consistent.  This unit provides indicator lights to display oxygen purity and a digital output, an LCD display is optional.

    Data Logger:

    DL-3 Ecosensors data logger DL-3 Data Logger

    Data from each of the devices can be input into a PLC for real-time calculation and reporting of ozone production in g/hr or lb/day.  Data can also be recorded with a simple datalogger that can record data from each device real-time to be recorded for later review.

    When measuring ozone concentration in % by weight the feed-gas (air or oxygen) must be factored into the calculation as oxygen and air have different weights. When calculating a percentage of a weight, it is necessary to know the weight of carrier gas.

     

    Ozone Calculations:

    Ozone Calculations and online calculators can be found at the links below:

     

    Ozone generator output

    ((LPM x 60) x 0.001) x g/m3 = g/hr

    Example = ((10 LPM x 60) x 0.001) x 10 g/m3 = 6 g/hr ozone production

     

    Ozone Concentration in air by weight

    100 g/m3 = 7.8% O3

    1% = 12.8 g/m3 O3

    1% = 7,284 ppm O3

    Ozone Concentration in oxygen by volume

    100 g/m3 = 6.99% O3

    1% = 14.3 g/m3 O3

    1% = 6,520 ppm O3


  • Ozone removes color from water

    Ozone does a great job removing color from water.  Ozone is an oxidant and will bleach water efficiently.  We were recently shipped a sample of wastewater from a client looking to have us determine if ozone would remove color from their water.  We were very impressed with the results, and decided to share, see video below for impressive results of ozone removing color in this water sample:

    The water sample shown is 250 ml. Ozone is generated from oxygen. Oxygen/ozone flow rate of 1 LPM is initiated about 5 seconds into the video. Ozone concentration is 10% by weight.

    For more information on ozone use for color removal in wastewater, see our website at the link below:

    http://www.oxidationtech.com/applications/water-treatment/wastewater.html#answer2

  • Ozone Bubble Diffusers - stainless steel

    We have recently obtained some new Stainless Steel Ozone Bubble Diffusers.  These are excellent options for your simple ozone system using a bubble diffuser.  These diffusers are constructed of sintered stainless steel and offer a 20 micron rating bubble size.  Max flow rates are 2.7 CFM and 5 CFM.

    Ozone diffusers Ozone Bubble Diffusers

    We offer these diffusers in 2 sizes.  Each has a 6" long diffuser attached to a pipe nipple with a 1/4" Male NPT threaded connection.  The difference in sizes we offer are only diameter differences.  This allows more surface area of the diffuser itself, and therefore a higher maximum flow capacity.

    Quantity discounts are offered for each diffuser, see our website for details on discounts.

    Ozone Diffuser Features:

    • Sintered stainless steel construction is strong and reliable for many years of service
    • Threaded connection offers a solid seal to your piping or tubing
    • Hex nipple allows a wrench to be used to tighten or later remove the diffuser from your fitting or piping, this eliminates the potential of breaking the diffuser when twisting the sintered steel
    • Welded construction
    • 20 micron rating allows for very small ozone bubbles
    • 6" length is sufficient to offer great surface area, but without the extra length to minimize damage

    Ozone bubble diffuser Ozone Diffuser - 1/2" diameer shown

    ozone bubble diffuser welded and capped end Welded end of diffuser shown

    Stainless ozone diffuser with hex nipple Hex nipple and threaded connection of ozone diffuser shown. A solid seal is made with the stainless threaded connection and hex nipple.

     

    Tips for using a bubble diffuser:

    • Before attempting to dissolve ozone into water ensure you understand the principles of ozone solubility well.  Click HERE for more information
    • Water tank must be vented to safely remove excess ozone/oxygen from the tank
    • Diffuser should be placed at the bottom of the tank
    • Taller tanks and taller water heights will increase mass transfer of ozone into water as the water pressure is higher at the bottom of the tank, and the gas bubble must travel farther in the water.
    • Ozone generated from oxygen will dissolve into water more efficiently than ozone generated from air
    • Ozone generated at high concentrations will dissolve into water most efficiently, target the highest concentration ozone possible when using a bubble diffuser.
    • Colder water temperatures will achieve highest dissolved ozone levels.
    • Use counter-current water flows across the bubble diffuser

    ozone bubble diffuser Drawing of example of ozone bubble diffuser in use

    Above drawing gives a great example of how an ozone bubble diffuser can be used in a very simple system.  A great advantage to this system vs those that use a venturi injector is that there is no water pump required in this system, this is a very passive, and energy efficient system.  Many of the failure prone pieces of equipment of a traditional ozone injection system are not used in this system.  Consider this in your next ozone system.

    ozone bench-test system Ozone bench-test system using bubble diffuser

    A great opportunity to use an ozone diffuser is a simple bench-test system.  Set-up a column to dissolve ozone into constructed of glass or PVC.  We use PVC pipe and place a diffuser in the bottom of the pipe via a tee.  This allows the column to be 5-feet tall or more.  This allows a great opportunity to maximize ozone transfer into water.

    The drawing above shows a complete system, if you are interested in setting a system like this up, let us know.  We sell and rent all this equipment, or can provide this testing for you in our facility.

     

  • Oxygen Purity Meter

    Oxygen purity is important for ozone production.  The better the oxygen purity going into your ozone generator the more ozone can be produced.  Therefore, being able to know the purity of the oxygen going into your ozone generator is important.  We recently released two oxygen purity meters that are able to measure 0-100.0% oxygen.  These units are designed to be placed in line after your Oxygen Generator and before Ozone Generator to measure the purity of oxygen coming from the Oxygen Generator and into your Ozone Generator.  The inlet and outlet connections are 1/2” Female NPT Fittings. Both models are equipped with a relay alarm for low oxygen purity as well as a 0-10 VDC and 4-20mA output signal.

    O2 Purity Meter – Low Flow

    This unit is capable of measuring 0-100% oxygen in flows at 6- PSI and inline flows up to 12 SCFH (6 LPM).  There are 3 color indicators lights that indicate the current oxygen levels:
    Green = above 85%
    Yellow = 75% – 85%
    Red = Below 75%

    An optional upgrade on the O2 Purity Meter Low Flow model would be an LCD display to show current oxygen levels.

    O2 Purity Meter – High Flow

    This unit is capable of measuring 0-100% oxygen in flows at 100 PSI and inline flows up to 127 SCFH (60 LPM).  This unit is comes with an LED integrated display that shows the current oxygen readout in a resolution of 0.1%.

    Oxygen Purity Meter High Flow with display

    Optional Add-ons

    Both units have a few custom options that depending on your application might be beneficial.  The optional add-ons are:

    Wireless Monitoring & Data Logging Kit

    This can be mounted next to your oxygen purity meter and connects to the internet which allows you to access the data from anywhere.  You can receive notification via text and e-mail alerts.

    Wireless Monitoring & Data Logging Kit

    Visual Strobe Light

    A strobe would be installed on the unit as a visual indicator when oxygen purity is registering below 75%.

    Audible Alarm

    An alarm can be installed on the unit to sound when the oxygen purity is reading below 75%.

    If you have questions on your current ozone system set up and how these oxygen purity meters would work in your set up, please contact us.

  • Ozone Therapy for TB treatment

    Ozone Therapy in India successfully treats patients with TB.  Great news story out about the use of ozone for the treatment of patients with TB.

     

    Bhavesh Thakkar has been holed up in the depressing surgery ward of Asia’s largest tuberculosis hospital in Sewri for over a year. Thakkar, 39, developed Empyema, collection of pus in the pleural cavity. The condition requires drainage of pus from the chest every day.

    ozone therapy for TB treatment Critical patients suffering from TB treated with ozone

     

    “The drainage bag would fill with a litre of pus every day. I had no strength to stand, and had lost hope,” Thakkar said. Ozone therapy, however, has turned around his deteriorating condition.

    “Recently, doctors brought in a machine, and started me on a saline wash for the lungs through an incision on my chest.” After 20 sessions, the leaking pus has stopped, and efforts are on to make Thakkar infection-free. He is on anti-TB medication and may need surgical intervention for damaged lungs.

    Bisleri International Pvt Ltd donated the ozone therapy contraption to the Sewri TB Hospital two years ago. It lay gathering dust until a month ago when a group of surgeons felt that it could be useful for critical TB patients.

    The machine emits ultra-violet light sparks which split oxygen into free molecules and generate two per cent ozone and 98 per cent oxygen. “Basically, oxygenated ozone is sent through a tube mixed with saline. A saline wash is administered to infected wounds,” said Dr Lalit Anande, Chief Medical Officer, Sewri TB Hospital.

    “Ozone has worked on patients on their death bed. It works as painkiller and an anti-inflammatory, has immunity-boosting anti-oxidants, and kills germs. About 40 patients have benefited from the therapy so far,” said Dr Anande.

    Ozone therapy can also be administered through drinking water route for all TB patients and hospital staffers to boost their immunity, Dr Anande said.

    The therapy was used during World War I to disinfect wounds, but somehow it has not seeped into the Indian fabric of treatment, says Dr Kuntal Pal, a leading pulmonologist from Mumbai. “We will need to study the patients who are being administered the therapy at the Sewri TB Hospital to understand how well it works,” he said.

     

     

  • Ozone Pilot Test Trailer

    We just started a new pilot test using our ozone pilot test trailer.  In this application, ozone is in use to remove 1,4-Dioxane and other VOC's from groundwater using in-situ remediation.

    ozone trailer Ozone pilot trailer on-site

    This site was contaminated from a legacy chemical plant that has long since been removed.  Site clean-up had been attempted with various other technologies over the years with success on other contaminates, but hard to break down VOC's remain at this site.  Ozone was chosen as a technology for the final phase of remediation on the path to final site closure.

    Our ozone pilot trailer has the ability to produce 80 g/hr of ozone from oxygen and push ozone to groundwater wells at pressures up to 50 PSI.  The trailer can be controlled and operated remotely via a telemetry system that allows full remote control and visual indication of system operation.

    ozone pilot test trailer remote access Example of telemetry used for the ozone pilot test trailer

    Should you have a need for a portable and automated ozone system please let us know.   This pilot test is currently located on the east coast and is in operation in New York State.  The features of this system are outlined below:

    • 80 g/hr ozone generator
    • 40 SCFH oxygen production
    • Ozone manifold with 4 individually controlled outputs
    • Mass flow meter to indicate Oxygen flow real-time
    • Ozone analyzer to measure ozone concentration real-time
    • Ambient ozone leak sensor
    • Full telemetry system
    • Boost compressor to provide up to 50 PSI ozone delivery pressure
    • Oxygen pressure sensor
    • Ozone pressure sensor

    telemetry ozone system Ozone pilot trailer in-use

    Trailer only requires electrical power for operation.  Either 120 VAC or 220 VAC power can be used for the operation to ensure flexibility for your application.

  • Ozone Generator Quality

    We get many questions about the quality and price point of various ozone generators.  These are fair questions as there are many price points for an ozone generator with the same basic g/hr or mg/hr ratings.  Here we will try to lay out the biggest differences in ozone generators.

    For a complete ozone generator buyers guide click HERE

    The purposes of this article we will be looking only at corona discharge ozone generators producing ozone from dry air or oxygen.  We will not be evaluating UV ozone generators or ambient air ozone generators used for air treatment as these both have very limited application.

    Corona Cell Materials

    The heart of any ozone generator is the corona cell.  This is where the corona discharge occurs and produces the ozone.  Materials such as aluminum, tin (tin foil), low-grade stainless steel and plastics can be used to lower cost.  This is typically the case for Chinese made ozone generators.  These materials will be attached by the oxidation of ozone over time, and create leaks or a failed corona cell.

    As these low-quality materials degrade they will contaminate the oxygen/ozone stream and allow impurities into the ozone stream.  Keep this in mind for water treatment or medical ozone applications.

    higher quality ozone generators will use high-grade stainless steel (316L), quartz glass, ceramic, and pure Teflon.  These ozone resistant materials will withstand ozone and create a longer life to the ozone generator.

    In 6-months of operation or very light use, there is no difference in corona cell materials.  Long term, after 6-months, or heavy use reliability of the ozone generator will be greatly affected. Costs will be higher to manufacture corona cells from higher quality materials.  However, the benefits are worth the cost.

    Transformer

    To produce ozone a high voltage spark is required.  This spark is occurring at all times and is an end-point ground.  A high voltage transformer is used to create these high voltages and sparks.  This transformer must be reliable and capable of handling the torment of shorting through a dielectric to ground at a high frequency for hours at a time.  We have found the best success with open coil resonant transformers, or oil cooled transformers.  Simple end-point transformers are less expensive and are commonly used in lower cost ozone generators, however, these will fail sooner.

    Electronic Driver Boards

    To produce ozone a high-frequency spark is used.  Electronic components must be used to create this high frequency.  Most commonly basic Mosfet transistors are used to switch DC voltage to create the high frequency.  Lower cost ozone generators will use one transistor to create the high frequency.  HIgher-end ozone generators will implement a series of transistors to split the workload.  

    Circuit protection

    In the event, the corona cell is contaminated, or adverse conditions exist the ozone generator driver board should turn OFF ozone production so that the transformer does not short directly to ground and fail.  Many lower cost ozone generators do not implement this circuit protection.  Those that do, may not react quick enough to protect the electronic equipment.  

    Cooling fans

    Ozone generators create heat.  That is a non-negotiable fact.  Many low-end ozone generators use small cooling fans that do not move sufficient air, and some use no cooling fan at all. 

    Ozone Concentration

    Ozone generators are normally rated with mg/hr or g/hr.  How efficiently this ozone is produced is a measurement of the ozone concentration, normally measured in % by weight, g/m3 or gamma.  It is important that the ozone generator you purchase produces the most g/hr at the highest possible ozone concentration.  Higher concentration ozone will consume less oxygen, dissolve into water more efficiently, and simply work better for every possible application.

     

    These are a few of the most important components to review on an ozone generator.  Of course, low-quality ozone generators serve a purpose, they meet a low price point, and allow a user to determine if ozone is right for them.  However, do not be confused, a $100 ozone generator is not a lifetime investment.  And as with everything, higher quality is going to cost more.

  • Ozone oxidation of MTBE and ETBE evaluated

    Ozone is commonly used to remove MTBE from groundwater and drinking water when MTBE is found in high levels.  Ozone is a viable option as ozone oxidizes MTBE rapidly from water, and completely after by-products are also oxidized.   Below paper gives great details on this process.

    MTBE molecule MTBE

    Oxidation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE) by Ozone and Combined Ozone/Hydrogen Peroxide

    Courtesy of:  Ozone: Science & Engineering  The Journal of the International Ozone Association

    Ozone science and engineering IOA Journal

    Authors: N. Karpel Vel Leitner ,A.-L. Papailhou ,J.-P. Croué ,J. Peyrot M. Doré

    Received 21 Jul 1993, Accepted 12 Oct 1993, Published online: 23 Jul 2008

    Abstract

    The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O3/H2O2. Batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH°-radical with MTBE and ETBE [kOH°/ETBE/kOH°/MTBE = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE and ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds.

    Link to access full paper below:

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01919519408552379

    Become a member of the IOA and receive the Ozone Science & Engineering Journal in the mail, and full online access:

    http://www.ioa-pag.org/membership/

    MTBE Removal Success

    Ozone has proven to be successful at oxidizing MTBE in water.  Ozone rapidly oxidizes MTBE, however, TBA (tert-Butyl alcohol) is formed as a by-product of this oxidation.  TBA is then oxidized by ozone, but at a slower rate than MTBE.  See chart directly below for a great example:

    MTBE removal from water with ozone create TBA

    Image from: Chemical Oxidation of MTBE and TBA

    The chart above shows a great example of MTBE removal in water with only MTBE and TBA data shown.  As MTBE was oxidized, TBA was created at the same rate.  After MTBE oxidation was nearly complete TBA oxidation started to occur, but at a slower rate.  TBA will also be completely oxidized from water with ozone over time.  Ozone remains a great option for oxidation due to the rapid oxidation of MTBE and complete destruction of both MTBE and TBA with no harmful by-products left in the water.

    Additional Technical Documents:

    Below is a series of papers and documents outlining practical and laboratory success in the elimination of MTBE from water using ozone, or ozone AOP processes.

    Click Thumbnails below for details on equipment we offer for groundwater remediation

    ORK-Series Ozone Systems  ORT-Series Ozone Trailer Systems   ORC-Series Ozone Systems  OXS-Series Ozone Systems

  • Ozone system service - water filtration system with ozone

    Recently Oxid tech service techs spent some time servicing a few older ozone systems used for livestock drinking water.  Both of these systems are used specifically for iron removal from well water on dairy farms.

    ozone filtration system Ozone filtration system for livestock - 200 GPM ozone and filtration system

    ozone removes iron from livestock water Ozone filtration system for 6,000 head dairy farm - 600 GPM ozone and filtration system

    While these systems are older, only basic maintenance is required.  We visit these sites quarterly to change filters, calibrate sensors, and perform basic maintenance.  If you are looking for service on your ozone system, call our office, we may be coming to your area soon!

    Ozone is an effective and chemical-free solution to iron removal from water.  Ozone will efficiently oxidize iron from water to a filterable state.  Backwasheable sand filters can be used to efficiently capture iron and discharge to drain safely.  A proper ozone system will effectively remove iron, manganese and many other minerals from water reliably with no use of chemicals.

    Ozone Injection and filtration system Ozone filtration system diagram

    Click here to learn more about ozone use for well water treatment

    Ozone can be used to efficiently remove many undesirable contaminants from water.  If your well water is less than ideal for your livestock, or even for your household, we may be able to help.  Ozone is commonly used to remove the following:

    Ozone systems require no additional chemicals.  Ozone is produced from ambient air and introduced into the water.  Bachwashable filters (if necessary for your water) remove the undesirable contaminates from your water with no consumables.

    ozone filtration system Ozone system with filtration

    Ozone filtration systems can be compact and simple.  Image above shows a basic ozone system with filtration.  Systems can also be built for large water flows as shown above.  Whatever your need, if your unhappy with your water quality, give us a call today.  We can help.

     

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