Ozone used for wound care

Another great paper has been released for the use of ozone in the medical industry. See below, or click link HERE for original paper.

Wearable and Flexible Ozone Generating System for Treatment of Infected Dermal Wounds

Wound-associated infections are a significant and rising health concern throughout the world owing to aging population, prevalence of diabetes, and obesity. In addition, the rapid increase of life-threatening antibiotic resistant infections has resulted in challenging wound complications with limited choices of effective therapeutics. Recently, topical ozone therapy has shown to be a promising alternative approach for treatment of non-healing and infected wounds by providing strong antibacterial properties while stimulating the local tissue repair and regeneration. However, utilization of ozone as a treatment for infected wounds has been challenging thus far due to the need for large equipment usable only in contained, clinical settings. This work reports on the development of a portable topical ozone therapy system comprised of a flexible and disposable semipermeable dressing connected to a portable and reusable ozone-generating unit via a flexible tube. The dressing consists of a multilayered structure with gradient porosities to achieve uniform ozone distribution. The effective bactericidal properties of the ozone delivery platform were confirmed with two of the most commonly pathogenic bacteria found in wound infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Furthermore, cytotoxicity tests with human fibroblasts cells indicated no adverse effects on human cells.

https://www.frontiersin.org/files/Articles/526403/fbioe-08-00458-HTML-r1/image_m/fbioe-08-00458-g001.jpg
Ozone for wound care

Introduction

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a major health and financial burden for millions of people worldwide. In 2016, SSTIs comprised 3.5% of all emergency room visits (Niska et al., 2016). Furthermore, the average cost of a hospital visit resulting from an SSTI is about $8,000 (SSTI, 2018). These numbers are only expected to rise in the years to come due to the aging population and the increasing prevalence of diabetes associate non-healing wounds and bedsores. To complicate the issue even further, many of these infections can be caused by bacteria that are resistant to common forms of treatment. Infections caused by drug-resistance bacteria have become a significant problem and now affecting over 2 million people in the US each year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). For instance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA), has been noted to kill more Americans every year than HIV/AIDS, emphysema, or homicide (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2017; CDC, 2018; Kourtis et al., 2019; Lei et al., 2019). This alarming decrease in antibiotic efficacy has been brought on by a number of factors, but a primary culprit is the commonality of antibiotics usage in society today, especially for inappropriate or unnecessary indications (Ventola, 2015). Simultaneously, major drug companies have reduced the number of antibiotics they are developing. This is mainly due to a significantly reduced return on investment for antibiotic research and development compared to the drugs for chronic conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer (Ventola, 2015).

Recently, there has been increased effort toward the development of alternative (non-antibiotic) materials and treatments for bacterial infections (Kowalski et al., 1998; Laroussi et al., 2000; Fridman et al., 2005; Fontes et al., 2012; Guan et al., 2013; Korshed et al., 2016). For example, metallic nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver have shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties for a wide range of bacteria and utilized in various advanced wound dressings (Maneerung et al., 2008; Rujitanaroj et al., 2008). Despite having effective antimicrobial activity, many studies have also shown that silver nanoparticles are cytotoxic, and cause damage to cellular components such as DNA and cellular membrane (Korshed et al., 2016). Other materials include polyvinyl-pyrrolidone, a non-ionic synthetic polymer, which allows for gradual release of free iodine with antimicrobial effects. Yet, povidone-iodine and its different complex forms have also been shown to delay wound healing by inhibiting fibroblast aggregation and leukocyte migration (Álvarez-Paino et al., 2017). Free radical and ionized gasses generated by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) have also shown to be an effective alternative therapeutic tools, providing both antimicrobial properties and help promoting wound healing, and tissue regeneration (through activation of growth factors and stimulation of angiogenesis) (Laroussi et al., 2000; Fridman et al., 2005). Although a promising approach, only a few devices and systems using CAP for wound treatment have been adopted by the patients or their caregivers. One major impediment of their widespread adoption is the system cost and complexity. These devices (e.g., Microplaster from Adtech Ltd) use plasma gun/torch that require high voltages, carrier gas (typically argon) and need to be operated by trained personnel in an outpatient setting. Similarly, smart wound dressings have been developed to help increase wound healing through delivery and sensing of factors such as oxygen, as well as drug delivery and providing optimal wound healing conditions (Gupta et al., 2010; Mostafalu et al., 2015; Ziaie et al., 2018).

Conclusion

Antibiotic resistant infections are a growing public health concern. A promising alternative to antibiotic therapy is utilizing the antimicrobial properties of topical ozone treatments. Developing a portable system designed to apply ozone to a targeted area will increase the options patients have in fighting infections that may otherwise be difficult to treat. In this work, we developed an ozone-releasing wound dressing consist of a disposable gas permeable hydrophobic patch with a reusable and portable ozone-generating unit. The patch incorporated a hydrophobic and highly ozone permeable outer layer and an inner dispersion layer for increased gas distribution uniformity. The antimicrobial effects of the system were tested against common antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The results indicated complete elimination of P. aeruginosa and significant reduction in the number of S. epidermidis colonies after 6 h of exposure. These tests also showed a high level of biocompatibility (low cytotoxicity) with human fibroblast cells during the same duration ozone treatment. The described patch is a promising tool in the management of chronic infected wounds.

Ozone therapy banned in Malaysia

Ozone therapy has finally been gaining some mainstream traffic worldwide in the last few years.  In fact, at recent IOA conferences, and in the Ozone Journal medical applications of ozone has finally been given, time, space and honest evaluation.

However, the country of Malaysia has recently banned ozone in medical applications by blanketly banning “ozone therapy”.

See link below for full new stories on this topic:

http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/05/07/ozone-therapy-a-danger-but-ministry-will-take-a-look-again/

https://cilisos.my/what-is-ozone-therapy-and-why-is-malaysia-completely-banning-it/

ozone therapy
Banner at clinic promoting ozone therapy in Malaysia

This ban is getting reconsidered due to requests in the country:

BALIK PULAU: The Health Ministry will do an indepth study on “ozone therapy” after the Ozone Medical Practitioners Association Malaysia asked that the ban on the treatment be reconsidered.

Deputy Health Minister Datuk Seri Dr Hilmi Yahaya said the ministry would take another look although the treatment has been found to be dangerous and offers no benefit to patients.

“Ozone therapy is a dangerous treatment as it has a molecule that is unstable and can produce air bubbles in the blood,” he told reporters after attending the Jom Cari Siput contest here yesterday.
Read more at http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/05/07/ozone-therapy-a-danger-but-ministry-will-take-a-look-again/#oybwiUFcSDrMw4QG.99

Ozone used for medical sterilization

Students revolutionize medical sterilization

Students revolutionize medical sterilization
Credit: Jordane Vernet/Sterilux

Read full story HERE

Between 5% and 10% of patients admitted to modern hospitals in the developed world acquire one or more infections. The risk of health care-associated infection in developing countries is 2 to 20 times higher than in developed countries. In some developing countries, the proportion of patients affected by a health care-acquired infection can exceed 25%. In addition, many hospitals in developing countries and in disaster relief environments make do with simple disinfection of medical material but the risk of nosocomial infections remain high. Now, a company founded by EPFL students has developed a portable sterilization system that costs a fraction of the conventional equipment used in hospitals.

UV-100 Ozone Analyzer
Use the UV-100 Ozone Analyzer to verify ozone levels in the gas phase

Sterilux was founded by EPFL student, Marc Spaltenstein, who has just completed his Master degree in Life Sciences and Technologies. During an internship with a medical devices company in Neuchâtel, Spaltenstein had to come up with an effective way to sterilize medical equipment on-site. The result was the Steribox system.

The SteriBox is a portable container that can both sterilize and store medical equipment long-term. It was designed by Jordane Vernet, a graduate of École cantonale d’art de Lausanne (ECAL) and member of Sterilux, and integrates the technology that Spaltenstein developed.

HTU-500 Ozone Generator
HTU-500 Ozone Generator can produce medically pure ozone for sterilization applications.

Designed as a box with a quartz glass on the top, the SteriBox is placed in a machine that generates ultraviolet (UV) light. Only a small amount of water – less than a milliliter – is needed per sterilization cycle. Essentially, the design uses UV light to turn the air’s oxygen into ozone.

The items to be sterilized do not require any kind of preparation or wrapping. They are placed inside the SteriBox, and UV light shines through the glass fitting. This generates ozone, which in turn sterilizes the . The process simulates the oxygen-ozone cycle in the earth’s stratosphere, where ozone is used as means of converting UV radiation into heat. The sterilization is further amplified by the generation of hydroxyl radicals from water, which are powerful oxidants and can destroy even the most resistant microorganisms.

Students revolutionize medical sterilization
Credit: Jordane Vernet/Sterilux

“Of course, the SteriBox is only one part of our system,” clarifies Marc Spaltenstein. It is inserted inside the Control Station that contains the UV lamps, a system that allows ozone concentration measurement, a printer for reports on each sterilization cycle, a mini-computer, a battery that provides three days of electrical autonomy, and a computer tablet that runs the software.”

The entire procedure takes a couple of hours but the machine is turned on for five minutes only. The system uses 1,000 times less water and 100 times less electricity than conventional autoclaves; it costs up to 100 times less (compared to developed countries), and is portable, environmentally friendly and safe. The system is controlled by software developed by Gabriel De Tiberge, another EPFL student as part of his master’s thesis. The intelligent and very efficient design earned Sterilux the James Dyson Award in 2015.

Sterilizing surgical tools in hospitals is a routine procedure in private healthcare, but it is difficult to do in public hospitals and emergency and disaster health care units in . Sterilux’s system is primarily targeted to countries that do not have access to conventional sterilization equipment. However, it will also prove essential to sites where mobile sterilization is required, e.g. temporary emergency centers and clinics.