Updates to municipal water treatment system using ozone

Renovations begin on water tank032416 city pic 2

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At Wednesday’s city commission meeting, commissioners voted in favor of two water projects in the first portion of the council meeting, which was an action session continued from last week.

In July of 2015, the commission approved a contract with Xylem/Wedeco Water Solutions to provide detailed manufacturing specification and production of specialized ozone replacement equipment located at the water treatment plant. The current ozone equipment was installed in 1995 with a 15-20 year life expectancy and is utilized for disinfection of the city drinking water.

After the initial award totaled $1,387,685, during the manufacturing plan development for the equipment it was discovered that additional changes would be necessary to assure the equipment would function as designed in the city water treatment plant. The original award amount covered the general cost of the building, however, in many respects, the equipment must be custom built to fit in the existing plant. This was not discovered until the final manufacturing details were reviewed.

The changes to plan increase the costs by $111,912 or 8.1 percent and were approved by the commission.

“The whole project, at this point, is waiting for final approval from KDHE,” said Frank Abart, public works director. “We expect probably before the end of next week (they will approve it) and then we will request authority from the city commission to advertise the bids. So, they will set a date and a time to receive bids. … We will let the market determine the actual price of the installation of the equipment.”

In August of 2015 the commission approved a contract with Utility Service Group to rehabilitate two water storage tanks located at the Water Treatment Plant. The tanks were constructed in 1947 and have not been rehabilitated since the early 1980s.

The west tank was recently rehabilitated and put back into service. Inspection of the east tank showed it to be in significantly worse shape than the west tank, for unknown reasons.

All 20 of the roof beams need to be replaced due to significant deterioration, at a cost of $88,000. Two inner structural steel support rings need to be replaced at a cost of $31,400. These rings are essential in supporting the roof beams. The change order request also includes the removal of an old interior painter’s ladder that was falling off the interior tank wall, in the amount of $1,875.

Abart said the difference in the conditions of the two tanks was surprising considering they are side-by-side. He anticipates the east tank to be complete by the end of May.

With one tank temporarily out of commission, that leaves Emporia with 1.5 million less gallons of water in reserve. Abart said the KDHE recommends water districts keep one and a half times the daily amount of water used in reserve.

Abart said Lyon county, which uses five million gallons of water a day, is in need of more water storage but the cost to build a new storage tank similar to the ones they are rehabilitating would cost about $3 million for the tank itself, not including new piping. Having excess water supply is most important when the plant has to temporarily shut down for maintenance. Abart said about once a year the plant pipes and tanks are cleaned of deposit build up, a process which takes about a day and requires the plant to shut down.

The total of the three changes is $121,275 and the additional charges were approved.

In other business:

Commissioners approved a bid from Mies Construction Company, Inc. for the Warren Way project at the price of $1,025,607.95.

In the second portion of the meeting, commissioners discussed:

Tuck pointing the exterior of several city buildings

Updates on the ozone project

A possible airport hanger at Emporia Municipal Airport

Commission goal updates

City Tyler, Texas increases use of ozone in drinking water plant

City makes process changes to improve drinking water

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Tyler Water Utilities (TWU) has made several process changes to improve its water quality since November, including increasing the use of ozone, enhanced coagulation and the addition of sodium hydroxide in the water treatment process.

The increased utilization of ozone at the Lake Palestine Water Treatment Plant was a recommendation from Enprotec/Hibbs &Todd, Inc. (eHT) who was hired by the Mayor and City Manager to evaluate Tyler Water Utility’s processes.  Ozone is used to reduce precursor organics related to the formation of problematic disinfection byproducts. Additionally, it has improved water quality by reducing taste and odor-related complaints.

“TWU continues to research ways to reduce disinfection byproducts and improve water quality by utilizing ozone,” said Environmental Compliance Engineer Clayton Nicolardi.  “The City is working with the TCEQ to identify alternative treatment strategies that rely more on the use of ozone for disinfection credit allowing for the reduction of disinfectants related to the formation of byproducts such as haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes.”

The second treatment strategy implemented is enhanced coagulation.  This process, like ozone, is utilized to enhance the removal of precursor organics prior to the addition of disinfectants often associated with the production of regulated byproducts. The results thus far have been promising.

The third change made by the Utilities Department was the addition of sodium hydroxide feeding capabilities at the Lake Palestine Water Treatment Plant in November of last year.  Sodium hydroxide is used primarily to improve water stability by increasing the pH and alkalinity of drinking water, thus reducing the potential for corrosivity which can lead to increased levels of lead and copper.

“This change has shown significant improvement as documented by the recent test results collected at five sampling locations that exceeded the action limit for lead and cooper last September,” said City Manager Ed Broussard. “In the most recent sampling conducted this week, Tyler is in compliance with standards set by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Lead and Copper.”

In response to these positive results at the Lake Palestine Water Treatment Plant, TWU began the process of implementing the same treatment strategy at its Golden Road Water Treatment Plant.  Due to the age of the plant, certain modifications had to be completed prior to implementing the use of sodium hydroxide.  This week, operators and crews are working on the last phase with the installation of the necessary feeding equipment.

“TWU strives to give the City of Tyler the best drinking water possible,” said Environmental Compliance Engineer Clayton Nicolardi.  “After reviewing processes and documenting test results in the spring of last year, TWU became aware of opportunities to enhance its water quality.  We began the process of getting approval through the TCEQ.  The TCEQ was very helpful in expediting the approval process allowing TWU to begin implementing changes in November of last year.  Significant improvements have been documented since.”

The most recent test results for the current quarter for haleocetic acids show that all sampling locations fell below the maximum limit permitted.  Because the TCEQ requires notification of residents based upon a four quarter average, Tyler will need to continue to notify customers until the peak month last spring rolls off.

“I am very pleased with the progress that is being made thus far,” said Tyler Mayor Martin Heines.  “By implementing many of the suggestions from the third party review, we have seen our water quality improved.  This does not mean that we are done.  We have a lot of work to do to ensure we are maintaining our infrastructure in a way that we can be proud of and that will continue to be a priority for term as Mayor.”

TWU is currently working with the TCEQ in organizing a more robust sampling protocol which includes approximately 300 sampling events for 2016 for lead and copper levels.  These samples will be targeted at the customers’ tap as well as surface water and ground water sources.  Residential sampling sites are selected based on year of construction and the potential that they may have plumbing materials containing lead and copper.

Learn more about the use of ozone in drinking water HERE


Ozone used for city water plant upgrade

City of Clarksville Installs BlueInGreen’s Innovative Ozone Technology

BlueInGreen’s HyDOZ system to provide groundbreaking ozone treatment and industry-leading disinfection at Clarksville Water Treatment Plant

FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. (PRWEB) September 15, 2015

Officials at BlueInGreen, LLC announced the installation of the water treatment company’s innovative HyDOZ® system Tuesday, bringing the world’s most efficient gas dissolution technology to the City of Clarksville, Ark.

The HyDOZ will directly inject dissolved ozone into the city’s water supply, treating up to 24 million gallons per day. By using less water, power and chemicals than conventional systems, the HyDOZ will provide more effective water treatment at a fraction of the cost.

ozone system for water treatment
Ozone System for municipal water

The recent plant expansion project will prepare the city’s water infrastructure to meet the needs of Clarksville’s growing population in the future. By reducing both short and long-term operational costs, the HyDOZ is projected to save the city money for many years to come.

After researching water treatment options, the HyDOZ stood out as the most convenient and cost-effective solution for the city, as well as our operators,” said Plant Manager Roy Young. “Ultimately, this project was designed with Clarksville’s future in mind. And with BlueInGreen, we truly have access to the next generation of water treatment technology.”

Ozone is a great option to reduce chemical costs, improve water quality and save money in small and mid sized municipalities!

In addition to reducing operational costs, the HyDOZ also allows operators at the Clarksville Water Treatment Plant to remotely control the facility’s ozone levels, either manually or automatically. Using the HyDOZ system’s wireless capability, operators are now able to monitor and manage the water treatment process from their laptops, phones and tablets.

Because we have a relatively small staff, we need a technology capable of working even when we’re not there,” Young said. “With the HyDOZ, I can leave the plant, check it from another worksite and know that it’s getting the job done. I love it.”

Since 2004, the Arkansas-based water treatment company has expanded its award-winning core technology into four product lines: the SDOX® – for adaptable aeration, the CDOX® – for precise pH adjustment and the SDOX-CS® – for optimized odor control. The HyDOZ – for dependable disinfection – is BlueInGreen’s most recent solution to hit the market.

With sales representation throughout the United States and Canada, BlueInGreen and its oxygen, carbon dioxide and ozone dissolution systems have been selected, installed and praised by engineers and operators across the country.

We couldn’t be happier that another local municipality has opted to implement our technology,” said BlueInGreen President John Kucharik. “But as our installation list shows, BlueInGreen’s technology isn’t just the best in Arkansas. It’s the best in the world.”

Read full story here

Ozone use for Small and Mid Sized Municipal water treatment plants

Ozone use for drinking water in large municipal water treatment plants has become very popular in recent years.  While ozone use may benefit all drinking water plants, most engineering firms and manufacturers have not targeted small to mid-sized WTP’s.  This is unfortunate and should be reviewed and considered the next growth potential for ozone implementation in Water Treatment.

Why use ozone for drinking water?

  • Ozone saves money

    • Chemical costs are rising, ozone replaces chemical usage, lowers chemical demand

    • Ozone costs remain fairly constant as technology improves

    • Primary cost of operating ozone system is electrical power and system maintenance

  • Better quality water

    • Ozone leaves no residual in water

    • Ozone lowers the use of chlorine, and improves overall water quality

    • Lower, or eliminates DBP’s

  • Powerful disinfectant

    • Ozone is a more powerful disinfectant – can provide complete eliminates of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and other chlorine resistant organisms

    • Ozone can oxidize EDC’s and emerging contaminates

  • Green! – Ozone is a green technology

Municipal Drinking Water plants using ozone – past and future

  • First ozone use in drinking water in the USA was in 1940

    • Whiting, Indiana drinking water plant used ozone for taste and odor control (Rice, 1999)

  • As of 2013, at least 277 WTP’s operating in the USA utilize ozone

    • This data only includes plants larger than 1 MGD capacity, no data is held on smaller plants

    • These plants have a combined capacity of 14.5 billion gallons per day with ozone production greater than 600,000 lb/day

  • Since 1983 at least 55 of these plants have been upgraded, using ozone at least once. Indicating ozone use was favored over other technolgoies by all parties.

  • Most ozone use for municipal water is in large water treatment plants.

    • Of the 277 WTP’s of record less than 30 are plants with a capacity less than 2 MGD

    • The median WTP implementing ozone has grown from 5 MGD capacity a the end of 1984 to 80 MGD at the end of 2020 (projected)

Growth potential of ozone use in the USA

  • The future of ozone for WTP’s in the USA is great

    • The EPA estimates there are over 150,000 municipal WTP’s in the USA

    • Only about ~300 WTP’s are using, or are planning on using ozone

    • Opportunity for Ozone use in WTP’s in the USA is untapped

  • Small to Medium sized WTP’s growth potential is greatest

    • Most of the WTP’s using ozone are large, or very large

    • The Largest WTP’s are targeted most for ozone implementation, and the majority of ozone implementation is in large WTP’s

    • There are many small to medium WTP’s that could use ozone but are not targeted by the traditional ozone industry

Municipal water treatment system

Drinking water plants the USA by population served
97% of the water treatment systems in the U.S. can be considered small to mid-size (less than 10,000 customers served).  The growth potential for ozone use in small and medium sized WTP’s is tremendous.

Ozone water systems started
Ozone Water Treatment Plants started in 10 year periods of time.

WTP’s started in 10 year spans shown by capacity

  • Average size of WTP has grown

  • Over time, emphasis on small and medium WTP’s has diminished

Municipal systems by ozone production
Ozone Water Treatment Plants started in 10 year periods of time.

WTP’s started in 10 year spans shown by ozone production

  • Average size of WTP and ozone systems has grown

  • Over time, emphasis on small and medium WTP’s has diminished

Where and why is ozone implemented?

  • Ozone is used in 42 of the 50 states in the USA

    • Ozone is used all over the USA, for a variety of applications

    • Ozone use follows population trends, CA, and TX are the two largest users of ozone

  • Ozone is used to replace traditional oxidants

    • Disinfection (Giardia & viruses)

    • Taste and odor control

    • Reduction of chlorinated DBP’s

    • Removal of color

    • Sulfide oxidation, TOC reduction, Iron and Manganese oxidation

    • Enhance coagulation processes

ozone water treatment plants by purpose
Water Treatment plants that implemented ozone, and the primary purpose for ozone.

Other = Hydrogen sulfide oxidation, Oxidation of unnamed materials, enhancing coagulation, iron and/or manganese oxidation, TOC, and “other”


  • Ozone use for municipal WTP’s is diverse, and continues to be diverse in the future

  • Only ozone use for disinfection has grown consistently in each decade

  • Ozone use for “other” has also grown over time, however this is a large group of uses for ozone in one category

Implementing ozone in small and mid-sized water treatment plants can be cost effective and simple.  See image below for an example of ozone contact tank and filtration system.

ozone filtration plant
Ozone contact tank and filtration system


Case Study – Lewisville, Indiana

  • 400 GPM WTP – Groundwater from 2 wells

  • High Levels of Iron and Manganese in water

    • Ozone implemeted for primary disinfection and iron & manganese oxidation

    • Plant before ozone

      • Chlorine used for disinfection, and iron & manganese oxidation

      • Chlorine use was excessive causing other issues

      • Plant exceeded TTHM limit due to excessive chlorine usage

      • Customer complaints about taste and odor were received weekly

    • Plant after ozone

      • Customer complaints decreased 95%

      • TTHM and HAA5 levels fell to zero

      • Chlorine dose reduced from 5 lbs per 35,000 gallons to less than 0.5 lbs per 35,000 gallons

      • Filter back-washes reduced, decreasing sewage costs by almost 90%

Case Study – Tate Monroe Water Association

  • 4 MPD WTP – Groundwater from 11 wells

  • High Levels of Manganese in water

    • Ozone implemeted for primary disinfection and manganese oxidation

    • Plant before ozone

      • Permanganate feed was used for manganese removal

      • TTHM levels were high

      • Plant operation was inconsistent

    • Plant after ozone

      • Total project cost was less than $1 million

      • Iron and Manganese levels dropped to near zero

      • Chlorine is more stable and free chlorine lasts longer in distribution system

      • TTHM levels have been cut in half and continue to drop

      • Chlorine use dropped dramatically


  • Ozone can be a great addition to many WTP’s in the USA

  • Growth potential of the ozone market is great

  • Ozone can save costs, while improving water quality

  • In the future, ozone may be the only option for reducing EDC’s