Jacob’s Ladder Demonstration

Here we have a makeshift Jacob’s Ladder, created by one of our ozone experts. The Jacob’s Ladder does a good job of giving a visual explanation for how ozone is created on an extremely small scale. What you are seeing is essentially what is happening on the inside of an ozone generator to create ozone. The process is really quite simple, the arc that you can see is just heated ionized gas. The gas molecules like oxygen are broken down to where they are at an atomic level and then ionized. While the oxygen molecules are broken down, they can more easily collide and bind with different molecules. For the creation of ozone, the oxygen molecules bind with O2 to create O3.

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Product Spotlight: OZX-300 Ozone Generator

With our website recently adding the OZX-300 Air Dryer, it is time to look into exactly what the OZX-300 Ozone Generator and Air Dryer are used for.

OZX-300 Air Dryer

The OZX-300 Air Dryer is a filter that comes included with your ozone generator. The ozone generator will begin to perform less efficiently as the dust and humidity in your air supply grows. The Air Dryer ensures that your ozone generator is being fed the cleanest air possible. The Air Dryer is a plastic tube that contains small silica beads on the inside, the silica beads then remove a majority of the moisture from the air that goes through it.

The Air Dryer is critical for making sure your ozone generator is working at its peak capabilities, and it is also included when you order an OZX-300 Ozone Generator. After being used, the beads within the air dryer will turn from a red color, into more of a dark greenish color. Once the bead color has transition, simply put them in a microwave or oven to adjust them, as heat will bring the beads back to their original red. (Note: Do not heat the container as a whole, the extended/extreme heat exposure will cause cracking. The beads can be reheated approximately 4-5 times before they will need to be replaced. For replacing beads, please contact Oxidation Technologies. For more information, please look here.)

OZX-300 Ozone Generator

While Oxidation Technologies offers a wide array of industrial-sized ozone generators (OXP, OXG, and OXW) we also offer the OZX-300 Ozone Generator to be used for smaller applications. The OZX-300 allows for smaller objects to be ozonated, without worry of breaking the bank. This ozone generator produces 500 mg/hr of ozone and offers an output dial as well as an adjustable timer to help enhance usability.

This product is shipped with an integrated air pump, ozone tubing, diffusers and an air dryer. All of this means that when the product arrives at your door, it will come ready to produce ozonated water. The OZX-300 Ozone Generator is also great for other applications such as removing bacteria and infectants from fruits & vegetables as well as extending shelf-life expectancy for fresh produce, and even removing odors.

500 mg/hr ozone output (concentration of 4.2 g/m3 [.33%] at 2 LPM flow rateIntegrated air pump + ozone tubing + diffusers
2 LPM air flow rate with integrated air pumpAdjustable ozone output
3/4 PSI air pump pressure (approx. 1.5 feet of water depth)Selectable timers
1/4” barbed connection for inlet/outletRechargeable Air Dryer

More information on the OZX-300 Air Dryer is here.

More information on the OZX-300 Ozone Generator is here.

Measure ozone production rates real-time

Tracking performance of an ozone system real-time is valuable for pilot test and even full-scale ozone systems and may be easier than you think.

Ozone system output is measured in g/hr or lb/day.  These values indicate the production rate of an ozone system.  Knowing the production rate of your ozone system real-time can have value in tracking system performance and preventing system failures by spotting potential issues before they start.

To calculate ozone production both the oxygen flow-rate and ozone concentration must be measured.  Both of these values can be measured real-time with digital devices installed inline with your ozone system.

ozone pilot system example install with measuring devices
Ozone generation system example with a Mass Flow Meter, UV Ozone Analyzer, and Oxygen Purity Meter installed inline.

Mass Flow Meter:

Mass Flom Meter GFM
GFM Mass Flow Meter

The GFM Mass Flow Meter will measure and display oxygen flow through your system real-time with a pressure compensated flow rate.  A mass flow meter measures the overall mass of gas passing through the device using ultrasonic technology.  This ensures reliable and repeatable flow measurements that do not require any conversions for temperature or pressure changes to the gas stream.  An LCD display or digital output can be provided to record oxygen flow rate.

UV Ozone Analyzer:

UV-HCR High Concentration Ozone Analyzer
UV-HCR Ozone Analzyer

The UV-HCR Ozone Analyzer will measure ozone concentration real-time to indicate the actual concentration of ozone produced by your ozone generator.   The UV Analyzer uses UV absorption technology to measure ozone concentration.  This unit provides an LCD display or digital output to record ozone concentration.

A sidestream of ozone gas must flow through the UV ozone analyzer (1-2 LPM).  Some of the ozone will be destroyed in the UV lamp measurement tube, the remaining must be converted back to oxygen safely using an ozone destruct device.

Oxygen Purity Meter:

OXM-12L Oxygen Purity Meter
OXL-12L Oxygen Purity Meter

The OXM-12L Oxygen Purity meter will measure oxygen purity real-time to ensure the oxygen purity remains stable and sufficient for efficient ozone production.  Ultrasonic technology is used to measure the composition of gas and ensure oxygen purity remains consistent.  This unit provides indicator lights to display oxygen purity and a digital output, an LCD display is optional.

Data Logger:

DL-3 Ecosensors data logger
DL-3 Data Logger

Data from each of the devices can be input into a PLC for real-time calculation and reporting of ozone production in g/hr or lb/day.  Data can also be recorded with a simple datalogger that can record data from each device real-time to be recorded for later review.

When measuring ozone concentration in % by weight the feed-gas (air or oxygen) must be factored into the calculation as oxygen and air have different weights. When calculating a percentage of a weight, it is necessary to know the weight of carrier gas.


Ozone Calculations:

Ozone Calculations and online calculators can be found at the links below:


Ozone generator output

((LPM x 60) x 0.001) x g/m3 = g/hr

Example = ((10 LPM x 60) x 0.001) x 10 g/m3 = 6 g/hr ozone production


Ozone Concentration in air by weight

100 g/m3 = 7.8% O3

1% = 12.8 g/m3 O3

1% = 7,284 ppm O3

Ozone Concentration in oxygen by volume

100 g/m3 = 6.99% O3

1% = 14.3 g/m3 O3

1% = 6,520 ppm O3

Oxygen Purity Meter

Oxygen purity is important for ozone production.  The better the oxygen purity going into your ozone generator the more ozone can be produced.  Therefore, being able to know the purity of the oxygen going into your ozone generator is important.  We recently released two oxygen purity meters that are able to measure 0-100.0% oxygen.  These units are designed to be placed in line after your Oxygen Generator and before Ozone Generator to measure the purity of oxygen coming from the Oxygen Generator and into your Ozone Generator.  The inlet and outlet connections are 1/2” Female NPT Fittings. Both models are equipped with a relay alarm for low oxygen purity as well as a 0-10 VDC and 4-20mA output signal.

O2 Purity Meter – Low Flow

This unit is capable of measuring 0-100% oxygen in flows at 6- PSI and inline flows up to 12 SCFH (6 LPM).  There are 3 color indicators lights that indicate the current oxygen levels:
Green = above 85%
Yellow = 75% – 85%
Red = Below 75%

An optional upgrade on the O2 Purity Meter Low Flow model would be an LCD display to show current oxygen levels.

O2 Purity Meter – High Flow

This unit is capable of measuring 0-100% oxygen in flows at 100 PSI and inline flows up to 127 SCFH (60 LPM).  This unit is comes with an LED integrated display that shows the current oxygen readout in a resolution of 0.1%.

Oxygen Purity Meter High Flow with display

Optional Add-ons

Both units have a few custom options that depending on your application might be beneficial.  The optional add-ons are:

Wireless Monitoring & Data Logging Kit

This can be mounted next to your oxygen purity meter and connects to the internet which allows you to access the data from anywhere.  You can receive notification via text and e-mail alerts.

Wireless Monitoring & Data Logging Kit

Visual Strobe Light

A strobe would be installed on the unit as a visual indicator when oxygen purity is registering below 75%.

Audible Alarm

An alarm can be installed on the unit to sound when the oxygen purity is reading below 75%.

If you have questions on your current ozone system set up and how these oxygen purity meters would work in your set up, please contact us.

Ozone used to save water in garment manufacturing

Ozone is instrumental in helping reduce water consumption in garment manufacturing.  Levi Strauss has learned innovative techniques and is now sharing this information with the world.  Read below:

Read full article here

Levi Strauss Water innovation Manual can be downloaded here


  • Water savings counted:  A bleach bath and a generic neutralization bath
  • Average water savings: 12 liters/ jean
  • Frequency of use: Moderate

Traditionally used to clean up garments, ozone, a powerful oxidant, has been used in finishing for some time. As a Water-less technique, higher concentrations of ozone achieve more pronounced lightening effects, effectively replacing many uses for wet bleach baths.

Lightening a garment with a wet bleaching agent typically requires three wet baths: a bleach bath, a neutralize bath, and a rinse bath. If ozone use comes in the middle of a finish formula, it saves all three baths. If ozone use is the first step in a formula, it only saves two baths because the garments need to be wet before being loaded into the machine. Since vendors apply the technique in different ways, they may save two or three baths. Therefore, we conservatively count the water savings from only two baths, the bleach bath and a generic neutralization bath.

Additional notes:

  • Ozone can be used on indigo or black sulfur fabrics.
  • Use of ozone requires up-front investment in the ozone machine and the generators, along with safety training for workers.

Ozone production from corona discharge


The most common method of producing ozone commercially and industrially is electrical discharge, or corona discharge. A corona discharge is simply a diffused spark through a dielectric to spread out that electrical discharge to a large area for maximum efficiency.

ozone production from corona discharge
Corona discharge ozone generator

There are many types and styles of corona discharge ozone generators. These go by many names, but are fundamentally the same, using these components:

  • Corona cell using a dielectric
    • Dielectric material may be glass, ceramic, or quartz
    • Dielectric may be conical, or flat plate
  • High voltage transformer to increase voltage of the electrical discharge
  • Power supply to regulate power to transformer
    • 60Hz machines will only regulate the voltage to the transformer
    • High frequency machines (greater than 60 Hz) will regulate frequency and/or voltage to transformer



  • Scalable and can create very large amounts of ozone
  • Creates ozone at medium to high ozone concentrations (up to 30% by weight)
  • Cost effective for long term operation
  • Low maintenance


  • High cost for initial capital investment
  • Creates excess heat that must be removed for efficient operation
  • Requires very clean, dry air/oxygen feed-gas for reliable operation

Ozone Production – How Ozone is Produced

Ozone produced from UV Light for Commercial Applications

Ozone is produced commercially from an ozone generator using UV light also. Ozone is produced from UV light wavelengths below 240 nm. Ozone production peaks at UV light wavelengths of 185 nm. Using UV lights tuned specifically for a wavelength of 185 nm ozone can be produced from air.

Ozone production from UV light for commercial applications
UV Ozone Generator



  • Simple Construction – only a UV lamp with ballast and a fan
  • Low cost – due to simple construction
  • Lower nitric oxide production


  • Low ozone output – g/hr
  • Low ozone concentration – less than 1% by weight
  • Bulbs and ballasts will need to be replaced

Ozone Production – How Ozone is Produced

Ozone produced naturally from UV-Light

The most common place in our world to find ozone is the ozone layer. This is a natural and important part of our word. UV light will create ozone from atmospheric oxygen at short wavelengths of less than 240 Nanometers (nm). UV light will also destroy ozone and break ozone back down into atomic oxygen (O) and diatomic oxygen (O2) at wavelengths from about 200 nm to 315 nm. Therefore, the ozone layer does a great job filtering UV wavelengths from about 100 – 315 nm. This is important as these are the harmful wavelengths of UV light cause sunburn in humans, and DNA damage in living tissues.


ozone production from UV light in the ozone layer
Ozone formation and destruction from UV light


The ozone is an important part of our worlds stratosphere. The level of ozone in the stratosphere ranges from 2 to 8 ppm in the ozone layer, therefore most of the atmospheric oxygen remains in the diatomic form (O2). Another element of pollution that is commonly discussed is the potential to disrupt this balance of ozone production and destruction via UV light in the stratosphere.

Ozone production