Remote Audible Alarm Panel (RAP-1) is Activated by OS-6 Monitor Relay when Ozone is above 0.1 PPM
In this video the RAP-1, which is a remote audible / visual alarm, is wired to the safety relay switch in the OS-6 Ozone Monitor, which is set to trigger above a 0.1 ppm ozone level. According to OSHA, the exposure limit for workers is 0.1 ppm for 8 hours per day. This relay is permanently programmed to always activate above 0.1 ppm ozone levels.
The decibel levels on the RAP-1 range from 92-103 dBA. The volume can be adjusted by turning the little black dial on the RAP-1 (shown in the video). The RAP-1 light and audible alarm are activated the entire time the OS-6 reads above 0.1 ppm ozone. As the ozone levels drop, the readings drop and result in the flashing light and audible alarm stopping after the reading goes below 0.1 ppm ozone.
Both devices can be purchased through our website. Each product is linked to below:
As the cannabis industry grows in the USA the interest in the use of
ozone in this industry grows. There are many applications and
potential uses for ozone in the cannabis industry, both in the
growing and processing of cannabis. However, there are also many
myths and potential misunderstandings on the use of ozone in this
industry. This article will serve as a general guide to help
understand the practical uses of ozone in this industry.
Irrigation water treatment:
Cannabis can be grown in many ways, in each, whether indoor, outdoor, hydroponic, or other, all require irrigation water for growing the plants. This water must be clean, pure and free of pathogenic bacteria for efficient plant growth. Ozone can be used to treat general well water for removal of harmful minerals and bacteria. See link HERE for additional details on these applications. Ozone can also be used to treat other incoming water sources that may have harmful pathogens, or generally low dissolved oxygen levels due to organics in water.
Ozone is commonly
used to treat well water, and city water sources for many water
treatment issues. The use of ozone in water treatment is common, and
is one of the oldest and most frequent uses for ozone in the world.
Using the same systems and processes that would be used in other
agriculture applications, or drinking water applications is
applicable in the cannabis industry with no major changes to the
systems or technologies.
As ozone is more soluble into water than oxygen, and ozone will revert to oxygen naturally in water, adding ozone to your water will naturally increase dissolved oxygen levels in that water. Increased dissolved oxygen levels in water are always beneficial for irrigation systems.
Ozone can be dissolved into water to be used for surface sanitation in rooms, equipment, and even plants if required. Ozone gas is produced, dissolved into water at high levels and used as a sanitizer. Ozone increases the ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) in the water to a level that if any of the water comes into contact with pathogens on the surface being treated.
application with ozone is common in the food processing industry.
Many studies have been done on the use of ozone in these applications
for food processing, and there are many ozone system currently in use
for these applications. The same systems and processes used in the
food processing industry can also be used in the horticulture and
further processing of the cannabis plant.
We have provided
ozone systems for surface sanitation applications by themselves. We
have also supplied ozone systems capable of treating both incoming
irrigation water and providing the higher dissolved ozone levels
necessary for surface sanitation in one package with one ozone
generation system, but 2 separate ozone mixing systems to dissolve
ozone in water in two separate water streams and control
Ozone in water for
surface sanitation is safe, there are no harmful side-effects to
humans or plants from ozone in water. However, if done incorrectly
ozone in water can be off-gassed from water and enter the gas phase.
Ozone in the gas phase can be harmful to both humans and plants. In
this application ensure ozone is implemented and operated properly.
Likely the oldest
and traditionally the most common use of ozone in the cannabis
growing industry, is odor control. Ozone is extremely effective at
reducing organic odors and is used in many applications for odor
reduction/elimination. During the growing, cultivation, and
processing of the cannibis plant odors are created that can be
potentially offensive. In applications where neighbors are close by
or there may be aversions to any fugitive odors ozone can be used in
the air exhaust of the building to eliminate odors effectively.
The final harvested
product must meet specific mold, and bacteria standards to be sold to
the end-user for consumption. There are state standards and good
manufacturing processes to adhere to on mold and bacteria counts on
final products. Ozone can be used to provide disinfection for this
final product to met the most stringent mold and bacteria standards
in your state.
Ozone gas can be used in rooms to inactivate pathogens. Ozone gas can be used after aqueous ozone is used for surface sanitation to ensure all pathogens in the room are destroyed before starting a new crop, or between processing batches of harvested product. The room must be empty of plants and people, ozone gas can be pumped into the room at levels that would be harmful to plant, people and all pathogens. Ozone monitors can be used to control ozone levels and ensure the room is safe for re-entry when complete.
Exampe of an ozone system:
Below is an image of an ozone system that can be used for both water treatment and surface sanitation applications in one package.
This system has a larger 30 gallon contact tank to treat high water flow-rates of incoming water with low ozone dosages for disinfection purposes. The 30-gallon tank will provide sufficient contact time with ozone to achieve disinfection with ozone. An ORP meter is used to measure and control ozone levels in water.
The smaller ozone mixing tank will provide lower water flow rates with a high dissolved ozone level (>2.0 ppm) to be used for surface sanitation applications. A dissolved ozone meter is used to measure and control ozone levels in water real-time.
Below is an image of an ozone injection system that will dissolve ozone into water, but also includes ozone gas outlets to be used for room disinfection, odor control, or other ozone gas applications. An HMI touchscreen panel offers control of the ozone outputs via timers, and ozone monitors measuring ozone levels in each location.
Below is a diagram of how an ozone system can be configured for many various applications in the cannabis industry in one single package.
Ozone is produced via oxygen under pressure. This ozone gas is controlled and can be sent to various rooms with ozone monitors in each room. These ozone monitors will control ozone levels to proper levels for the specific application.
Ozone gas can be delivered to the venturi injector that is a part of the ozone mixing tank. This ozone in water can be plumbed directly to a point of use with a high level of ozone for sanitation applications. OR, can pass through a UV light that will safely revert all ozone back to oxygen prior to using in an irrigation system where ozone in water may be undesirable.
This system also shows an ozone destruct unit for ozone off-gas. This off-gassed ozone is reverted safely back to oxygen. This oxygen can be bubbled into an irrigation system to increase dissolved oxygen levels slightly.
As you can see, there are a wide variety of potential uses of ozone in the cannabis industry. Due to this wide variety, there is some misinformation and some myths about the use of ozone. If you would like to learn how ozone could benefit your facility, please contact our application engineers. We would be glad to help.
The K-7404 ozone test kit is a quick, easy, and reliable method to measure dissolved ozone levels in water. This is a manual coloremetric test kit that will measure ozone in water directly up to 3.0 ppm.
The K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit allows you to test for dissolved ozone levels in the range of 0.05 ppm – 3.0 ppm. Included in the kit are 30 test ampoules, which are used up and are replaceable. There is also a cylinder of activator solution included, which causes a chemical reaction during the test. This solution is also used up and can be replaced. The permanent parts of the kit are the box itself, the 25 mL test cup, and the two-color comparators. The lower level color comparator has a range of 0.05 ppm dissolved ozone and goes up to 0.6 ppm dissolved ozone. The higher range color comparator starts where the other one left off, going from 0.6 ppm to 3.0 ppm dissolved ozone.
To take the test, first make sure all the items you need for the test are laid out. This is important because once you take your sample of dissolved ozone, you need to proceed through the test steps quickly to ensure the dissolved ozone doesn’t break down. If you take too long between taking the sample and testing the level of dissolved ozone, you will get an inaccurate reading showing lower levels of dissolved ozone than what truly exists.
Add five drops of activator solution to the empty sample cup. Then add 25 mL of dissolved ozone to the sample cup. Quickly place the tip of the ampoule in the cup, swirl it several times, and snap off the end of the vial at the bottom of the cup. The vial will instantly fill with the sample, because the vial is vacuum sealed. Move the vial back and forth several times so the bubble moves up and down the tube, thoroughly mixing the sample. Wait 1 minute. Compare the color of the test ampoule to the varying levels of pink-colored tubes in the color comparators. The darker the pink, the higher the levels of dissolved ozone. Purchase K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit
Oxidation Technologies builds a wide variety of ozone injection systems. However, we also customize our wide range of systems with standard optional equipment we offer on any one of our systems. Below are a few examples of custom systems we have provided recently.
OST-40 Ozone Injection System with options:
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 PPM
Water flow switch – turn system ON/OFF based on water flow
Ozone off-gas scrubber
High ambient temp alarm
Internal air compressor
Ozone levels in water can be controlled with either the Dissolved ozone meter, or the ORP meter, or both. The ozone generator will turn OFF when high limit ozone in water, or ORP limits are reached.
An internal air compressor is used to provide compressed air to the system, only electrical power is required for this system. Due to the internal compressor and potential environment, the high temp alarm was also added.
OST-20 with Ozone gas control options:
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
Ozone gas output valves x10
HMI touchscreen for ozone level and timer controls
This system features ten ozone output valves to distribute ozone to 10 separate cold storage rooms. Ozone gas levels are measured and controlled with remote ozone meters, ozone levels are displayed on the HMI panel. Both controlled ambient ozone levels, and timers are controlled on the HMI panel. This data can all be viewed remotely from any location via an internet connection.
OST-30 Ozone System with two injection systems:
Second ozone injection loop for 2 water streams
Larger 30-gallon ozone contact tank for water disinfection
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm for surface sanitation loop
ORP meter for water disinfection loop
CDU-30 ozone scrubber
High ambient temp alarm
One ozone injection system with two separate injection loops.
Injection loop #1 features a 30 gallon ozone contact tank and an ORP monitor for water disinfection. An ORP level of 800 or higher is maintained in this tank to provide disinfection in up to 30 GPM of water.
Injection loop #2 features a standard ozone mixing tank with a high range dissolved ozone meter to provide up to 20 GPM of water with ozone levels of 2.0 – 3.0 for surface sanitation applications.
Additional features of this system include a CDU-30 ozone scrubber for ozone off-gas and a high-temperature alarm. A UV-light system was also provided with this system to be used with the water disinfection ozone injection loop. This removes ozone from water and provides disinfected water with no ozone residual for a sensitive downstream process.
OST-60 Ozone System with 50 gallon ozone contat tank:
50-gallon ozone contact tank
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
Oxygen purity meter
Water flow switch
This system features a 50 gallon ozone contact tank to provide additional contact time with ozone and water. A dissolved ozone meter verifies dissolved ozone levels and offers control. The system can be turned ON/OFF with a water flow switch.
An oxygen purity meter is built into this system. This meter provides a digital reading of actual oxygen purity inside the cabinet. A low O2 purity indicator is provided on the enclosure as an alarm.
OST-100 Ozone System options:
50 gallon ozone contact tank
Low-range dissolved ozone meter
Sanitary ozone transfer pump with VFD and power disconnect
Water flow meter
HMI touchscreen for automated system operation
This custom system was built to specific requirements by this customer. A 50 gallon ozone contact tank was provided on the system. A large ozone transfer pump with a sanitary impeller was provided with a VFD to achieve a specific water flow-rate through the system. This water flow rate was measured with the water flow meter. Dissolved ozone and ORP are measured and controlled on this system based on water flow-rate and customers’ needs. All this control and set-up is performed with the touchscreen HMI panel built onto this system.
Ozone has been used to disinfect water for over 100 years. Many water treatment plants throughout the world not only use ozone to disinfect water, but also remove organic compounds and improve taste and smell. Ozone is an attractive alternative to chemical treatment because it is very effective and does not introduce any new chemicals to the water you use. The drawback has been a high initial cost and equipment maintenance. Advances in technology have brought ozone within the reach of the average home owner, and small scale reliable ozone generating equipment has stood the test of time. Our ozone water treatment(WT) system is simple to operate and monitor to ensure that it is working properly to provide safe water. Here are five routine, simple, and quick checks of your ozone WT system to maintain your peace of mind.
You will know your water’s staying clean when …
1) The desiccant air dryer feels warm.
Put your hand near the top of the air dryer. Does it feel warm? If it is cold, something is not right. The air dryer contains two cylinders of desiccant material. It is the same stuff you find in little packets sometimes placed in the packaging of sensitive electronic equipment. This material absorbs moisture from the air. Eventually it becomes saturated with water and no longer absorbs moisture. The water is removed by heating the desiccant material. The desiccant air dryer is designed to cycle back and forth between two cylinders filled with desiccant material. When air is flowing through one to remove the moisture, the other is being heated to drive off the moisture. If the outside of the box feels warm, this is a good sign that all is well.
2) The moisture indicator is blue.
The moisture indicator provides additional assurance that your ozone equipment is getting dry air. This little viewer contains crystals that change color in the presence of moisture. When it is blue, you can be sure the air feeding your ozone generator is dry. If it is not blue, it could mean that the dryer is not working properly, the crystals have been contaminated in some way, or the crystals need to be replaced. Don’t become alarmed right away. The dryer requires a good six hours of uninterrupted operation to stabilize. If the location is excessively warm or humid, the dryer will not perform well.
If you continue to suspect that the air dryer is not performing as it should after a number of checks over the course of a few days, try to determine what has failed. If the dryer feels warm but the moisture indicator is not blue, it may be that the moisture indicator is contaminated. Newmoisture indicatorsare available from our store. It is also possible that the desiccant material has been contaminated or worn out. In that case, you will need one of ourdesiccant refill kits. If the air dryer feels cold, check the power connections. We also sell replacement heater tubesthat contain the desiccant. If you are unable to verify that the air dryer is working, it may be time for a new dryer.
The only part of the treatment system that is active 24/7 is the desiccant air dryer. All the other components wait until the well pump turns on.
3) The little silver ball in the flowmeter jumps up and hovers when the well pump turns on. (Newer models have a digital reading of air flow)
The flowmeter is a simple device telling us how much gas is flowing through the system. Air is pulled through the air dryer and ozone generator by suction produced by the black plastic venturi. Suction is created by the flow of water through the venturi. When the well pump turns on, water rushes through a narrow passage in the venturi. With sufficient flow, the water pressure differential between the input and output of the venturi creates air suction. Air flows through the tubing as it is pulled into the venturi. The little silver ball is lifted by this gas flow giving a visual indication that air is flowing through the system.
If no air flow is created when the water pump turns on, remove the ozone tube connected to the black venturi. Place your finger over the hole to see if suction is created. As long as the pump is running, the venturi should create air suction. If there is no suction, remove the check valve that is threaded directly to the venturi. Clear out any rust or mineral deposits. If the pump stops, water will squirt from this port, so try to open enough faucets to keep the pump running. If you are unsuccessful with getting air suction from the venturi, it could mean that the well pump is not pumping enough water through the venturi to create suction, or the venturi has worn out.
If you do have air suction at the venturi, but still no air flow indicated on your flowmeter, it may be that a check valve needs to be replaced or something else is blocking the flow. The source of blockage needs to be found and cleared before ozone generator will operate. The ozone generator turns on when it senses a sufficient flow of air. Most ozone generators will have a blue light indicating that the ozone generator is running.
4) You can smell ozone from the off-gas vent
But can you be sure that that sufficient ozone is being generated to disinfect your water? When your system is operating properly, left-over ozone that does not get dissolved into the water is vented from the top of your contact tank. If you remove the tubing from the off-gas vent, you should smell ozone when the system is running. It might take a little while for enough ozone gas to build up for venting, but when it accumulates at the top of the tank, it will be vented, often in short spurts.
5) Testing your water for dissolved ozone levels.
Ozone is a more powerful disinfectant than Chlorine. It destroys, inactivates, and prevents growth of bacteria and viruses with very low levels of dissolved ozone in water. As little as .3 ppm dissolved ozone for contact time of 5 minutes provides a 5 log (100,000 bacteria reduced to 1, 99.999% reduction) reduction of most bacteria and viruses. Contaminants are exposed to much higher levels of ozone when it passes through the venturi. By the time the water leaves the contact tank, any contaminants have been in contact with ozone long enough for most of them to be destroyed. The ozone has done its job and very little is left in the water that is distributed to your home. Enough will be left over to prevent growth. As little as 0.01 ppm will prevent growth. These low levels of ozone leaving your contact tank can be measured with our low costK-7404 dissolved ozone test kit. You don’t want much ozone left in your water. Too much ozone left over in the water can lead to irritating ozone off-gas at the point of use.
Our journey to the center of an ozone generating plasma cell begins with a ride around a not-so-lazy river. Perhaps you’ve enjoyed floating in a raft around a lazy river at a hotel or water park. Picture these rafts as electrons flowing through a circuit. Moving magnetic fields are pushing electrons through the fluid media of metal atoms. They follow the circular paths of circuits like rafts floating around and around the lazy river ride. A pump continually pushes the water along.
Unlike the continuous flow in one direction of direct current (DC), alternating current continuously reverses the flow of electrons. Imagine the lazy river model constantly changing direction. The electrons first flow one way, slow, reverse, and rush the other way. The electric supply to your home goes through 60 cycles per second. Our lazy river model begins to defy imagination at this rate of change. You can think of electrons as virtually weightless, unlike all the water and rafts in a lazy river. Electrons are quite capable of reversing direction very quickly.
Energy Transfer The flow of electrons through a wire might be apparent from the glow of a light bulb. As electrons squeeze through a resistive part of the circuit, the wire heats up transferring energy to heat and light. Other things are happening outside the wire. Hold a compass near a wire in which current is flowing, and the needle is pulled away from North. Whenever an electric current flows, a magnetic field develops around the wire. Stop the flow, and the field collapses.
Wrap this conductor into a coil, and the magnetic field is intensified. Add an iron core, and a magnet is born. A continuous flow supports a useful magnetic field, capable of pushing the rotor of a motor or the lever of a switch. Again we notice a transfer of energy, this time from electric current flow to some mechanical motion. Energy transfer doesn’t stop there.
Energy transfer is reversed in a magnetic field when the electric current stops. When current stops or reverses, the magnetic field collapses. The collapsing magnetic field gives electrons a push in the coiled conductor. This phenomena opens up the possibility of generating a flow of electrons in a second circuit that is isolated from the first circuit. It also introduces radio waves. Imagine a second lazy river next to yours. It doesn’t have a pump, so the water is still. But imagine an invisible force generated by the flowing of the first river pushing the water along in the second. Such a transfer of energy happens with the flow of electrons and is essential to ozone production within a plasma cell.
A Dam in the River: The Plasma Cell Heart
A dam in the lazy river brings the rafts to a halt, but build two Olympic sized pools on either side of the dam. Now the river continues to flow awhile even with a dam because it takes time to fill the pool. Depending on the strength of the pump, the water flows for a while as one pool gets a little deeper while the other is drawn down. If you can pump one pool much deeper than the other, a significant stress builds on the dam. Our lazy river could get exciting if the dam were to burst. We are getting closer to the center of a plasma cell.
In your mind you need to convert the Olympic sized swimming pools in our lazy river circuit to large flat pieces of metal. In the electron world, the dam between these two plates is an insulator, a material that prevents the flow of electrons. Electrons pile up on one side while they are drawn down on the other side. Electrons are the negative charge. Pulling electrons away leaves one side with deficiency of electrons: a positive charge. If the insulator were breached, a powerful surge of electrons would create a dramatic spark. It would be equivalent to the deep swimming pool emptying to the shallow one in milliseconds.
It is here at the “dam” where we discover the center of a plasma cell. When the distance between the two electrically charged plates is made smaller, the electrostatic forces between them grow exponentially. In other words, a thinner dam makes a more powerful electrostatic field. But a thin dam is also weaker and more susceptible to failure. The goal is a material that is strong and a good electrical insulator. Ceramic and quartz serve well for this purpose. But without some oxygen present in this high electrical pressure environment, we only have a capacitor and no ozone production.
We need to introduce one more element: a thin layer of oxygen as part of the “electron dam.” We can think of the dam as a sandwich of two insulators with a very thin slice of oxygen between them. When oxygen is exposed to the tremendous electrostatic forces found within this space between highly charged surfaces, the oxygen molecules are pulled apart and re-combine in highly energized forms. I would like to zoom in for a closer look at this sliver of space.
A Peak Inside the World Between Dielectric Barriers
Photographs of this space between the two insulators reveals what appears to be a mini, but intense electrical storm. We are used to thinking about lightning bolts jumping from one charged conductor to another, but in this electrostatic microcosm, the mini “bolts of lightning” are jumping from the surface of one insulator to the surface of the second insulator. In the presence of the strong electric field, the molecules within the insulator become polarized. This means that the electrons are pulled by the positive electrode toward one end of the molecule that make up the insulator. Even though electrons are unable to flow through the insulator, the polarization sets up “pools” of electrons on the surface. We call the insulating material used in in this application a “dielectric.” The type of ozone generator we are entering here is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generator.
Exactly what is happening in this high electrical pressure world between dielectric barriers has been and continues to be a topic of considerable research and study. Already around 1897, John Townsend discovered that the strong electric field in the oxygen space between dielectrics initiates electron avalanches. A free electron among the oxygen atoms accelerates very quickly because it is attracted to the positively charged plate (anode). When it reaches a high enough velocity and collides with an oxygen molecule, it knocks off another electron, turning the molecule into a positively charged ion. This ion begins to move in the opposite direction toward the negatively charged plate (cathode) while the two electrons further accelerate toward the anode and collide with more oxygen molecules. As the growing electron cloud races toward the anode, it leaves a trail of positively charged ions in its wake.
This trail of ions and free electrons is conductive, and allows for a discharge of electric current through the oxygen. The discharge is the flow of electrons that has gathered on the surface of the dielectric towards the positive charge on the other side of the oxygen gap. It is this discharge of energy that breaks the oxygen molecule bonds releasing free oxygen atoms. Some re-combine with single atoms, and others combine with pairs to form highly energized ozone molecules made of three oxygen atoms. The world here at the center of an ozone generator is a stormy one swarming with surges of electrons.
DBD: A Specialized Form of Corona Discharge
The discharge is similar to a spark, but not nearly as hot. It does not result in a discharge of the electrodes. Only small areas of the inside surface of the dielectric discharge with each electron avalanche. The strong electric field induces a secondary, high voltage mini-circuit within the oxygen gap. Thousands of these discharges can be repeated as long as the voltage supplied to the anode and cathode continues to increase.
The power supply for an ozone generator alternates this electric field thousands of time each second. When the pressure (voltage) rises through the threshold that sets off electron avalanches, the discharge storm erupts. Since the electric field changes thousands of times each second, the oxygen gap experiences thousands of storms each second. The optimal frequency and voltage depends on the gap size and oxygen pressure. The electronics controlling the voltage need to be tuned to match the particular dielectric arrangement for optimal ozone production.
The benefits of setting off thousands of mini discharges in a space between insulators instead of simply allowing a spark to ark between the positive and negative electrodes are the following: 1) an arc generates so much heat that it melts most materials. Such an arc is useful for welding or plasma torches, but would destroy an ozone generator. 2) Ozone production is minimal with an arc. Most of the energy is converted to heat and the heat destroys ozone. 3) Producing many small discharges from dielectric surfaces within a strong electrical field stays cooler and yields more ozone.
This form of ozone generation is called “Dielectric Barrier Discharge” (DBD). DBD belongs to a category of corona discharge. Corona discharge was observed by ancient sailors on the masts of their ships as a flare of luminous plasma at the tips of the mast and other pointed parts of their ship when the atmosphere is highly charged. The phenomenon occurs when strong electrostatic forces concentrate at sharp points and break down air to form plasma. You can observe this phenomena with an electrostatic generator in a dark room. Many of the small ozone generators sold for home use rely on a form of corona discharge from sharp points. Higher quantities of high concentration ozone used in commercial applications often use DBD type ozone generators.
Ozone can also be produced with ultraviolet light and radiation bombardment. The ozone layer which protects earth from harmful radiation is produced by ultraviolet light with a wavelength less than 200 nm. Ultraviolet light between about 200 and 300 nm destroys ozone. The ozone layer is maintained with a balance of ozone generation and destruction with ultraviolet light. Ozone can be created in water with electrolysis. Passing an electric current through water breaks the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Using specific electrodes results in oxygen combining to form ozone.
Here at Oxidation Technologies we do not build DBD plasma cells, but we rely on companies who continue to research and build quality generators for a wide range of applications. We specialize in integrating the right ozone generators into specific applications. Dissolving ozone into water requires ozone generators that make higher concentrations of ozone. Many applications can utilize low pressure or even slight vacuum to minimize the danger of ozone leaks. Sometimes controlling precise levels of low ozone concentrations can best be attained with an ultraviolet ozone generator. Whatever your application, we have the expertise to integrate the right ozone generator to your process.
Every day, pharmaceutical companies around the world produce tons of products that people use to enhance their quality of life. This realm of products has been lumped into a category called “Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products,” (PPCPs). These products and drugs do not disappear, but are found increasingly in the water being discharged from wastewater treatment plants. The impact that this cocktail of chemicals has on the animals and people dependent on this water is not fully understood, but the evidence is clear that it is not good.
Ozone is a powerful oxidant capable of breaking troublesome molecules. What impact does ozone have on PPCPs? A recent laboratory study published in the engineering journal of the International Ozone Association (IOA) exposed water containing thirty seven different PPCPs to investigate the degradability of these chemicals.
Eight of the thirty five were very quickly degraded to or below their limit of detection with a dissolved ozone dose of 1ppm within 5 minutes. Five more were degraded with a dissolved ozone dose of 2ppm within 5 minutes. Five more required at least 10 minutes of retention time at 2 ppm.
The other half of the thirty five required more time and a higher dose of ozone. Three of them, (DEET, Ketoprophen, and Primidone) did not degrade below their limit of detection even when exposed to 9ppm of dissolved ozone for 15 minutes.
Ozone clearly has a significant role to play with PPCP cleanup. Further study is sure to discover ways to optimize the process and make it more effective. Oxidation Technologies specializes in integrating ozone into the specific process of diverse customers. We continue to pursue a better understanding of ozone use in a variety of applications.
N. Evelin Paucar, Ilho Kim, Hiroaki Tanaka & Chikashi Sato (2019) Ozonetreatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater, Ozone: Science & Engineering, 41:1, 3-16, DOI: 10.1080/01919512.2018.1482456
Legionnaires’ disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by breathing mist from water containing the bacteria. The bacteria thrive in the warm water found in whirlpool spas, cooling towers, fountains, humidifiers, produce misters, etc. Symptoms of Legionnaires’ disease include high fever, a cough, and sometimes muscle aches and headaches.
The rate of reported cases has increased over 5 fold since 2000, and deadly outbreaks continue today unabated. The reason or reasons behind this increase are unclear at this point, but ozone has proven to be effective at controlling the bacteria in water. Whether the bacteria are flourishing within a 100 gallon fountain or a 1000 ton cooling tower, the engineers at Oxidation Technologies will maintain will provide the precise dose of ozone needed for safe water.
Ozone that is safely dissolved into water has a tremendous disinfectant power and simply turns back into oxygen after expending its energy. As little as 0.01 ppm (1 part ozone to 100 million parts water) prevents the growth of these bacteria. We provide cost effective equipment and long term service to ensure safe and effective use of ozone for bacteria control.
The equipment needed to dissolve low levels of ozone into water can be very cost effective and sustainable for many water systems. A home well-water system uses one of the smallest ozone generators we sell to dissolve enough ozone when the well pump runs to disinfect all the water needed in a typical home. As a general rule of thumb for industrial cooling towers, five grams of ozone per hour is needed for every 100 tons of tower cooling capacity.
The 50 g/h ozone generator needed to supply a 1000 ton cooling tower will also require an oxygen concentrator, venturi, ORP controller, and sometimes a booster pump. The oxygen concentrator and controller comes in a complete package with our OXG systems. The following study conducted by Mazzei reports a one year payback for ozone use due to lower chemical and cleaning costs.
We also provide the convenience of a quarterly preventative maintenance plan to make sure the system continues to perform at peak efficiency and avoid costly repairs due to neglected maintenance. We often work with an independent water company that provides routine testing for the customer to make sure water quality remains good and inform us of any problems.
An oxygen concentrator is a wonderful machine … when it works. Attempts to diagnose and repair a your concentrator when it fails can be very frustrating. But understanding just a few principles of operation may turn frustration to success.
Principle #1 Remember your sand box.
If you have ever played with a sieve in a sandbox, you already understand the science behind an oxygen concentrator. The air we breathe contains about 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen. The other 1% is composed of a few other gasses. An oxygen concentrator is a sieve that lets Oxygen molecules through and holds back the Nitrogen molecules.
So you need to picture some poor quality sand with about 80% pea gravel mixed in. It’s nice and dry, so when you scoop some up in your sieve and shake it a bit over a bucket, you end up with some nice, beach quality sand and a sieve that’s still got a lot of pea gravel in it. Dump out the gravel into another bucket and do the same thing over again. Slowly but surely you fill your sand bucket with some nice sand. This is like the tank of oxygen you accumulate with an oxygen concentrator. The pea gravel dump pile is the Nitrogen that hisses out of the concentrator muffler. Take the muffler off, and you can get a better feel of the process.
Principle #2 – Respect the destructive power of moisture
Now, you might recall that when you get some wet sand in your sieve, the process doesn’t work so well anymore. You might need to shake it more and everything starts to clog up. Moisture causes lots of problems for an oxygen concentrator as well. Once it starts to condense in the sieve material, the sieve begins to break down. It would be like your sandbox sieve falling apart or getting rusty so that either everything just goes straight through or it gets completely plugged and nothing goes through. The sieve material in an oxygen concentrator is in the form of little clay pellets that are treated with zeolite. This material does a great job sorting out the Nitrogen from the Oxygen, but is very vulnerable to moisture.
If the sieve material has been exposed to moisture and has begun to break down, you will begin to see signs of this process with dust that starts blowing out of the exhaust mufflers. It is best to take care of the problem as soon as possible, because the dusting will only lead to more problems. It will begin to disrupt the valve operation and may even totally clog up the mufflers to the point where the Nitrogen can’t exhaust anymore. Chances are, by this time the sieve material is ruined and is not filtering out the Nitrogen anymore.
What to do. Unfortunately, if your sieve material is breaking down, your concentrator sieve beds will need to be rebuilt. The sieve bed needs to be opened up, old material dumped, and new sieve material put in. Sieve beds are typically in the form of two aluminum tubes with some screens and a spring to hold the sieve material in place. These need to be carefully cleaned, inspected for damage, and carefully put back together so that it is sealed up tight. If you’re not up for the challenge of rebuilding the sieve bed, you can send the beds in to us for a re-build.
Principle #3 Valves need to operate flawlessly.
Rebuilt sieve beds may not be the whole solution. There is a good chance that the dust from degraded sieve material has found its way to the valve set. The valves are your arms working the sieve in the sandbox: dig up some sand, hold it over the sand bucket, dump out the gravel into the gravel pile, do it all over again and again and again. If you’re sloppy, you’re going to get gravel in your sand.
In an oxygen concentrator, two sieves are at work together. When one is sifting, it is also at the same time helping to clean out all the Nitrogen being exhausted by the other sieve bed. The valves direct a certain quantity of air for a certain time into the sieve. Too much air, and it is like the sieve overflows and Nitrogen spills into your oxygen, diluting it. If the Nitrogen isn’t dumped properly, the next cycle is ineffective and disrupts the rhythm.
The valves need to open to let compressed air into the sieve for a certain time. Oxygen flows out the other side through an orifice and a check valve. As the air valve closes, it opens a second port to release the Nitrogen trapped in the sieve back into the surrounding air. A second valve lets compressed air into the second sieve. As it fills, some of the oxygen leaving the other end helps force the remaining Nitrogen out of the first sieve.
The valves are typically a spindle that slides back and forth to direct the gas flow. A solenoid pushes the spindle back and forth. When electricity flows through the coil of wire in the solenoid, the magnetic field generated pushes a plunger to move the spindle. The spindle needs to move freely. Dust or contaminants can interfere with its movement so that the air is not precisely measured or timed properly. A careful cleaning of the valve often will fix a sticky valve, but sometimes even when it seems to be operating smoothly, only a new set brings the precision needed for proper operation.
Principle #4 Check valves and orifices may seem insignificant, but they’re not.
What looks like little connectors for oxygen tubing are actually precision parts that work together with the air valves to direct the Oxygen and Nitrogen flow. Orifices are precisely sized holes that limit the flow of Oxygen. In a concentrator, they are often used to allow a limited amount of Oxygen to push out any remaining Nitrogen left after exhausting from the de-pressurized sieve. If it gets plugged, Nitrogen stays in the sieve and ends up contaminating your oxygen supply. The check valves prevent any excess oxygen from flowing back into the sieve. Make sure the oxygen hoses are clear of debris, you can blow air through the orifices, and the check valves work. You should be able to blow through one way, but not the other. They need to be oriented so that the oxygen flows to the oxygen tank and not back.
Principle #5 More O2 flow is not better
A simple thing to overlook when trying to figure out when the O2 purity isn’t what it should be is excessive oxygen flow. Bring back to mind the sieve in the sandbox. The sieve is only so big. It will only hold so much sand and pea gravel. If you exceed the capacity, extra material is going to fall over the sides and not go through the sieve. Try operating your concentrator at a flow rate that is lower than the maximum rating. If you get good oxygen purity at a low flow rate, but it starts to fall off as you approach its rating, you might have some oxygen leaks. An oxygen leak won’t be measured by your flowmeter. Use some soaping water to look for leaks and fix them.
We sell and service most brands of industrial oxygen concentrators, stock parts, and do all we can to keep oxygen concentrators healthy. We also sell and rent oxygen meters to determine the oxygen purity of a system. A diet of clean, dry air is proven to greatly extend their life. They are designed to handle a limited amount of moisture, but it is risky. Continuous use, just like regular exercise, will also extend life. Startup on a humid day will be hard on them. Hot humid air from the compressor is liable to condense in a cooler sieve and begin the cycle of damage. If the suggested remedies do not solve your concentrator problems, feel free to give us a call.