Ozone Mass Transfer – What is so Important?

Having the proper ozone equipment is only part of the solution. Ozone is a gas and is generated in situ. Making sure that this ozone gas is transferred into a liquid and then mixed properly is very important. This process is known as ozone mass transfer.

Making sure that the ozone is properly dissolved and allowed a complete chemical reaction of the gas is how to ensure a reliable ozone mass transfer. Most failures of ozone applications are the results of faulty ozone mass transfers.

The Solubility of Ozone and Importance of Choosing Correct Mass Transfer Devices

Temperature has an effect on the different solubility of ozone. Ozone is able to dissolve more and easier in cooler water. Because of this, ozone doses for the for the same applications will differ from country to country. When a proper ozone mass transfer is conducted, it will enhance the solubility levels of ozone, thereby ensuring required actions of ozone. A list of simple mass transfer devices are:

1) Hydro injector/ venturi/ eductors

2) Diffusers

3) Static mixers

4) Mass multipliers

5) Combination of the above

Venturis: These devices use high water pressure to suck the ozone into the water. They achieve at least 90-95% efficiency because of their design. The pump required has to be sized properly, or there will be ozone leakages.

Diffusers: These are devices that bubble ozone across water in order to diffuse it into the water. They work under normal water pressure. The number of diffusers needed will be determined by the volume of air, and surface area of the contact tank. Diffusions requires a minimum bubbling height of 5-6 meters for maximum efficacy. Some problems that arise from diffusing is the channeling of bubbles, and inadequate gas liquid contact. Because the diffusers is always in contact with high concentration ozone, it is important that the diffuser is made of the right material. SS or ceramic diffusers are the most preferred materials. For waters with high turbidity, diffusers are not recommended. Ozone destructors are also needed for the destruction of any unused ozone.

Static Mixers: These are devices placed in a pipe that are always used in conjunction with venturis. If used after venturi injections, they increase the ozone mass transfer. The material of construction is also very important here as well. SS 316 are normally used.

Mass Multipliers: These are devices that are placed in pips that discharge water mixed with ozone under high pressure into the water. They are normally used for large applications and in conjunction with venturis. Mass Multipliers are normally made of Kynar plastics.

Combination of Devices: A combination of mass transfer devices are often used. Combinations work efficiently and will guarantee higher percentage of mass transfer. However, in larger applications, it can also increase the cost it takes for mass transfer. This is something that is very important to keep in mind when planning your method of mass transfer.

Other factors that determine the efficiency of the ozone mass transfer are:

1) pH of the water: needs to be between 7-8 pH.

2) Temperature of the water: the higher the temperature the less the ozone will dissolve.

3) The concentration at which the ozone is used. The higher the concentration, the more ozone will dissolve.

4) The pressure: ozone mass transfer under pressure is recommended and this can reduce ozone dose, since efficiency is very high.

5) The design of the contact tank: ensures that the diffused ozone is efficiently mixed in the water.

Other Forms of Ozone Mass Transfer: There are also some unconventional types of ozone mass transfer that can be used with equal efficacy. U Tube devices are one of these methods. U Tubes have water that is forced into the tube under pressure and the water mixes within the pipelines when the direction of the water if forcibly changed. Essentially, it is like using a diffuser system under pressure. A U Tube system that is designed properly can have an efficiency of over 95%.

The smell of rain… Ozone!

It is commonly said that the smell of ozone is present after a rain storm. This is true, and some great data I read this week explains this further. Read the whole article here.

From the article, it explains that ozone can be be detected BEFORE it rains.

Before it rains, as the wind begins to pick up and the clouds thicken or roll in, you may become aware of a noticeably fresh scent in the air. That sharp, clear aroma is ozone, a molecule made up of three oxygen atoms bonded together (O3) whose name comes from the Greek verb for smell, ozein. It’s the same gas we associate with the layer of our atmosphere that protects us from too much sunlight. As unsettled weather approaches, ozone is carried to the ground in strong downdrafts that, once they hit the earth, move horizontally as strong, gusty winds that precede the arrival of the rain. That wind, or “gust front,” and the smell of ozone that’s carried in it, reaches your nose a short time before the approaching rain arrives.

The act of rain falling from the sky further creates an extreme downdraft of air and pulls more ozone gas to the surface of the earth so that after a rain, the odor of ozone is still present.

It is important to note that while ozone is generated from lightening in a rain storm this is not the cause of the majority of ozone detected at ground level. So, the next time you “smell” rain, you can thank God for the gift of ozone and science for helping us understand it!

The Ozone Hole

The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of many layers and ozone is a part of that atmosphere that protects the Earth from the effects of UV rays. Ozone is in the stratosphere layer of the atmosphere. The ozone in the stratosphere absorbs UV rays and other solar radiations. Strong UV rays and other radiations can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and even a suppressed immune system. The stratosphere, where the ozone molecules are located, is about 10-40kms (6-25miles) above the surface of the Earth.

Discovered by British scientists in 1985 Joesph Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin of the British Antarctic Survey, the ozone hole is actually a reduction in concentrations of ozone high above the earth in the stratosphere. Over the past couple of decades, the ozone hole has steadily grown both in size and in the length of existence. Chloroflourobcarbons (CFCs), which are man-made chlorines, are responsible for the thinning of the ozone layer. The ozone layer thinning means there are larger quantities of harmful ultraviolet rays reaching the Earth’s surface. People around the world are starting to make a conscious effort to not use anything that will produce compounds that deplete the ozone layer.

Early Morning Ozone

Ground-level formation of ozone starts early in the morning, and as the day goes on the ozone generation increases, causing pollution. Performing everyday tasks from driving a car to mowing the lawn generates ozone. Volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides are the most significant contributors.

Traffic is the biggest contributor to pollution in the air. Continued traffic pollutions added to the earlier ones begins to form ozone as the UV rays intensify. During warm summer months, an inversion may develop and traps the pollutants close to the ground (400-500ft above sea level). Any wind will restrict the pollution dispersion. The UV rays from the sun cause a chemical reaction between the volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides to form ozone in the atmosphere. For maximum ozone concentration, temperatures in the 90s are required. The intensity of the UV rays impacts the levels of ozone. The more intense the UV rays, the higher the levels of ozone and the lower the intensity of the UV rays, the lower the levels of ozone. By the evening, most of the ozone that was formed during the day breaks down into other different compounds, and soon enough all of the ground-level ozone is essentially destroyed.

Ozone During Thunder Storms

Everyone has experienced the refreshing feeling after a thunderstorm. This freshness is associated with the formation of ozone. During thunderstorms, the lightning that is produced can conduct more than 25,000 volts. This high voltage causes oxygen in the air to break and recombine to form ozone. The ozone spreads and purifies the air. The rain in the thunderstorm takes away some of the pollutants in the air, as well as contains small amounts of ozone dissolved within the water. This is why we feel very refreshed after and during thunderstorms.

Ozone Formed in Photo Copying Machines, Televisions, X-rays Machines

Anywhere there is high voltage, there is also small amounts of ozone being formed. This is why you can smell ozone behind televisions, in X-ray machines, and in photocopy shops. Ozone is okay to breathe in when it is in small amounts, but doing so continuously can be dangerous. Because of this, it is important to take care of ambient ozone levels. Anyone who works with high voltage producing equipment needs to be aware of the danger of ozone.

Ozone in Refrigerators and Cars

Ozone is used in both refrigerators and cars to purify the ambient air. By doing this, it can ensure longer life for vegetables and other foods inside the refrigerator. High value cars such as Mercedes have small ozone generators systems (in some models) that produces controlled ozone inside the car. This keeps the car fresh from contamination and odor, as odor is the most common problem in air-conditioned cars.

Ozone Uses in Odor Control

The Problem Today

Awareness is growing for a variety of hazardous airborne microbes such as mold, fungi, bacteria and viruses found within the indoor environment. Exposure to these microbes can occur in a variety of indoor settings such as residences, office buildings, hospitals, airplanes, and medical and dental offices. High levels of microbes can also be found in most enclosed locations where people gather such as schools, theatres, restaurants, etc.

The average person spends approximately 90% of their time indoors. This can increase their risk of health more than the outdoors.

Medical research linked Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to numerous allergies, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease and cancer. In addition to this, there are many less severe symptoms and diseases such as congestion, coughing, dermatitis, dry throat, headaches, eye irritation and viral infections that also reduce your well-being and health.

A reduction in fresh air supply in most buildings have a negative side effect of withholding pollutants inside the building. Reductions may be used to conserve air conditioning cooling costs. This affects the health in both short and long term for the occupants of the buildings.


Most odoriferous (aromatic) substances are all organic compounds conjugated linkages which are easily attacked by ozone.

Ozone is particularly useful in odor control in the following areas:

  • Smoke Odor Removal: Hotel rooms after heavy smoking or parties, cleaners, painting and decorating operations, new carpets.
  • Buildings: Air recirculation systems, effectively stops algae, fungus and bacteria formation, saves maintenance expenses, cuts down the amount of air needed. It also saves fuel expense.
  • Apartments: Destroys smelly food and other odors from various apartments, kills odors of garbage rooms and deodorizes party rooms. Most effective in removing odors in all types of ventilated office and buildings.
  • Beauty Parlors: Destroys odors of hair sprays, nail polish, perms, etc. Keeps air fresh.
  • Super Market Stores: To keep air fresh all the time. Ideal for meat preparation areas, meat and vegetable coolers, fresh fish areas, etc.
  • Department Stores: Store smells nice and fresh when opened in the morning.
  • Banks: Vault areas, storage areas, central ventilating areas, etc.
  • Hospitals: Chronic care rooms ICU & ICCU, cancer rooms, laundries, food preparation area, garbage rooms, operation theatres, and wards, etc.
  • Forensic Centers: Morgue rooms, autopsy rooms, laboratory exhaust systems, etc.
  • Pet Hospitals: Removal of stench of animal excreta and odors.
  • Process Areas: Removes odor from process areas especially in the sea food industry chemical factory, and to maintain sterile areas in pharmaceutical process areas, electronic industries, etc.

Advantages of Ozone in Air Treatment

  • Cleans and disinfects air.
  • Biological air contaminants are destroyed.
  • Effective against microbes, endo toxins, VOCs and organic odors.
  • No toxic chemicals need be employed.

To see Oxidation Technologies wide variety of ozone generators, please click here!

Listeria Reduction with Ozone

Listeria is a common name for a specific strain of seven different bacteria species. Listeriosis is a serious infection that is caused by the specific species of Listeria called L. monocytogenes. This infection is caused by eating food contaminated with the strain of bacteria. This disease poses a great risk for those who have weakened immune systems or are immune deficient, and at times can even be deadly. Both L. monocytogenes, and Listeriosis are commonly known as Listeria, and Listeria illness.

Fruit and vegetable contamination can be caused because Listeria can be found in soils. Listeria is also found to be in all types of meat products, milk and eggs. The foods that are at high risk to have Listeria include uncooked or undercooked foods, unpasteurized milk, raw vegetables, and some ready-to-eat foods.

Click HERE to learn more about Listeria from CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention)

The use of ozone on foods has increase significantly since 2001 when it was GRAS approved for direct contact with foods. Ozone has proven to help reduce or eliminate any strains of L. monocytogenes on food products.

The correct implementation of ozone is necessary for it to be effective at eliminating any bacteria. Each application may be different, but there are a few fundamentals that apply with most application processes.

Implementation of Ozone

Aqueous Ozone

Dissolving ozone into water is the most common method of using ozone to get rid of pathogens. Ozone is dissolved into water using an ozone injection system and then sprayed onto the surface that needs disinfection. Surfaces that use this method can include hard equipment surfaces or the surface of a food product.

In 2000, a paper written by Kim and Yousef was published by the Journal of Food Science that showed the effect of dissolved ozone in a batch reactor on Listeria monocytogenes. Dissolved ozone at 0.4 and 0.8 ppm inactivated 4.6 and 5.7 log CFU /ml within 30 seconds. More tests were also run at higher levels of dissolved ozone, and it showed a faster inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes.

There are many ways that dissolved ozone can be sprayed onto food and produce, one of the best ways is using spray bars along with conveyers to allow sufficient contact time and offers full coverage of the aqueous ozone. Having every part of the food or produce contacted by the aqueous ozone is very important for disinfection. Conveyer speeds, spray tip design, and the quantity of aqueous ozone all can alter the contact time to get it to where it is desired. It is very easy to add ozone to the application process if there is already a method of washing the produce or food with water. This allows for no interruption in the processes and still improves disinfection.

Gaseous Ozone

Gaseous Ozone is also used for the elimination of pathogens from food and produce but it is much less common than aqueous. There has been less research about the effects of gaseous ozone on bacteria. There are many factors that gaseous ozone is dependent on if it is going to be effective. Things such as temperature, humidity, contact time, and ozone levels all factor into whether or not the process is going to be successful. There has been research conducted to determine that gaseous ozone will reduce the strain of bacteria L. monocytogenes; however, there is more research necessary in to determine effectiveness based on all of the different variables.

Cargo containers, chambers, or rooms are all places that produce that is needed to be disinfected can be placed. Any area that is sealed and able to contain the produce and ozone gas while maintaining human safety works. Air movement is important in order to cover every angle of the produce. Ozone levels from 1.0 – 100 ppm are used in this application with contact times from 20 minutes to 10 hours.

Product Spotlight: Oxygen Concentrators

Oxygen Concentrator Types Compared

The purpose of this article is to explain the main types of oxygen generators available for ozone production and the advantages/disadvantages of each.

There are a few manufacturers of oxygen generators and a few differences between each. However, the fundamental operation of each manufactures version is very similar so that will not be reviewed here. We will focus on the three main styles of oxygen generators and how they could be implemented into your ozone generation system.

Turnkey oxygen concentrators OGSI, OG-15 and OG-20 AirSep, AS-12 and Onyx Sequal, Workhorse line
OEM oxygen concentrator modules Sequal, ATF modules OGSI, OG-OEM modulesSequal and OGSI OEM Oxygen Generator
Industrial oxygen concentrator systems AirSep, AS-A, AS-B, etc OGSI, OG-25, OG-50, etcIndustrial oxygen generator

Generally smaller ozone systems will use the turnkey oxygen generators, and larger ozone systems with higher ozone production rates will use the industrial oxygen generators, while small to medium integrated ozone systems will use the OEM modules. However, there are applications where the industrial style oxygen generator is required for higher pressures, or turnkey oxygen generators are required due to the lack of space or available compressed air.

Turnkey Oxygen concentrators

Packaged oxygen generators that include an oil-less compressor, PSA oxygen generator, and all components to concentrate oxygen from ambient air. These units only need electrical power for operation and will provide oxygen at 93% purity.


  • OGSI, OG-15 and OG-20
  • AirSep, AS-12 and Onyx
  • Sequal (Chart), Workhorse line
Turnkey packaged oxygen generators from airsep, OGSI, Sequal


  • Compact size allows for install in relatively tight spaces
  • Turnkey design allows for quick and easy operation
  • Relatively low cost


  • Lower oxygen output delivery pressures due to limitation of internal oil-less compressors
  • Poor reliability due to the lack of ability to purge moisture from process air
  • High maintenance costs due to poor reliability

OEM Modules

OEM models are offered by both OGSI and Sequal (Chart). The OEM modules use the same PSA sieve beds and valving systems as the turnkey packaged oxygen generators provided by those companies. These modules are commonly used to build ozone generators with integrated oxygen generators, or smaller integrated ozone systems.


  • OGSI, OG-15-OEM and OG-20-OEM
  • Sequal (Chart), ATF Modules, ATF-8, ATF-12, ATF-15, ATF-23, ATF-25, and ATF-32
OEM oxygen generator from OGSI and Sequal


  • Compact size allows for install in relatively tight spaces
  • OEM configuration allows for installation into the same enclosure as an ozone generator if desired
  • Use of compressed air from plant air compressor may allow for very clean, dry air to be used increasing reliability dramatically when compared to the turnkey packaged oxygen generators.
  • Can provide slightly higher oxygen delivery pressure than turnkey packaged oxygen generators due to the higher compressed air inlet pressures that can be used
  • Lowest potential operational costs if plant compressed air is used


  • Installation equipment is required and must be done properly for reliable operation
  • Lower oxygen output delivery pressures than industrial oxygen generators
  • Potentially high replacement costs (applies to Sequal/Chart ATF-modules)

Industrial Oxygen concentrators

Industrial oxygen concentrators are used for medium to large scale ozone generation systems. These systems require compressed air for operation along with proper plumbing and set-up. Large steel cylinders are used to hold the molecular sieve material, and quality rebuildable solenoid valves are used to perform all purging and oxygen recovery actions.


  • OGSI, OG-25, OG-50, OG-100, etc
  • AirSep, AS-A, AS-B, AS-D, AS-E, etc
Industrial oxygen generators from Airsetp and OGSI


  • Long term reliability of the system – only periodic maintenance is required
  • Lower overall long-term operational costs than other options due to low cost for rebuilding the unit
  • Higher oxygen delivery pressures (45 – 65 PSI)
  • Higher oxygen flow-rates available


  • Higher up-front capital costs for oxygen generator, tanks, and potentially the air compressor
  • May require more physical space for installation
  • Greater installation work required

To See Our Complete Oxygen Concentrator Lineup, Please Click HERE

Energy Efficient Ozone System Design

Conservation is a big topic in todays era, and the water industrial solutions should address this and ensure power savings are part of the solutions provided. The solutions provided should have a balance between CAPEX and OPEX costs.

Ozone generation is impossible without power and power consumption. High voltage power is used to split oxygen, producing ozone. During the ozone production, power is also used to produce chilled water to cool the ozone electrodes as well as injecting ozone during the process. Power is also used to destroy any unused ozone. Therefore, because the production and implementation of ozone take so much power, it is important to consider this when looking for a design where power required is minimized. How do we do it?

Ozone Generators

Today the prime consideration of selecting an ozone generator is its energy efficiency.

Ozone production consumes in power two ways:

1. Production of ozone

2. Requirement of chilled water to cool ozone electrodes

The normal power requirements for ozone production is around 10 W per grams of ozone for ozone produce from oxygen, and around 18 W per grams of ozone for ozone produced from air. The most energy efficient ozone system today, produces ozone from oxygen at less than 8 W per gram of ozone.

Most ozone generators require chilled water between 12-20 degrees because the electrodes need to be chilled during the process in order to keep the generator from damage. The production of ozone generates heat, which damages the electrodes as well as destroys some ozone produced. Producing chilled water requires power and energy for the closed loop chiller. The most energy efficient ozone generators can now produce ozone with cooling water temperature as high as 35 degrees Celsius, requiring just a closed loop heat exchanger instead of a chiller.

The choice of air or oxygen depends on the application and the correct air-liquid ratio when diffusers are used for ozone contacting. Both air and oxygen preparation can be costly in different terms. Air preparation is costly in terms of OPEX, whereas oxygen preparation is costly in terms of CAPEX. The application will determine whether it should be air feed or oxygen feed. The wrong choice will compromise the efficacy of the system.

Diffusers or Injectors

Using an air feed and injection system requires a lot of energy because large injection systems are needed for handling large volumes of gas. Diffusers are typically preferred if the volumes of water are large because no energy is required and efficacy depends on the air liquid ratio in the ozone contactor. In injection systems choices of the correct injectors and energy efficient pumps can reduce OPEX costs.

E-Coli Summary

E.coli Reduction with Ozone

The most common topic for discussion around workplace water coolers is not bacteria. However, there is a certain strain of bacteria that has generated a good amount of press and discussion. The strain of bacteria, E. coli O157:H7 has become popular in the media, which has caused many people to have a healthy fear of this bacteria.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a strain of bacteria that is commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans, and are known to be dangerous and can cause food borne illnesses. The strain of bacteria, E. coli O157:H7, can be life threatening and has resulted in an estimated 2,100 hospitalizations, and is one of the most dangerous strains of E. coli.

Many vegetables, meats and even water supply can contain this strain of E. coli. The biggest cause of infections from E. coli are from food borne illnesses like under cooked ground beef. However, some waterborne illnesses have been found as well. The Canadian town of Walkerton, Ontario had a municipal water supply contaminated by this strain of E. coli in May of 2000. As a result, the pathogen has been blamed for over 2,000 illnesses and 7 deaths.

Solutions to reduce food borne pathogens are becoming very rare. For example, in the past, chlorine has been widely used as a cheap and effective oxidizer to kill a variety of pathogens. However, chlorine is being used less and less as the side effects of the chemical are slowly becoming more apparent. Other chemicals such as methyl bromide, chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite, that have been used to combat pathogens in the past are also being used less because of the awareness of side-effects.

Ozone is found to be a new and effective method of antimicrobial intervention. In certain industries, such as drinking water, food processing, and surface sanitation, ozone is becoming very popular. Ozone has been proven to be an effective disinfectant against many different pathogens, but studies needed to be conducted in order to prove it was useful against this particular strain of E. coli O157:H7. After research was conducted, it was proven that ozone is effective against this strain of E. coli.

Below is an excerpt from the Direct food additive Petition presented to the FDA in August 2000 to achieve GRAS status for the use of ozone to inactivate E. coli O157:H7, along with other pathogens.

Implementation of Ozone

Aqueous Ozone

The most common method of using ozone for pathogen reduction is dissolving ozone into water. Aqueous ozone is very stable, safe, and easy to manage. Typically, ozone is dissolved into water using an ozone injection system, and then sprayed onto the surface requiring disinfection. This surface may be a hard equipment surface, or the surface of a food product.

Ozone levels of 2.0 ppm are commonly used for E. coli O157:H7 reduction. Only a few seconds of contact time of the aqueous ozone with the pathogen is necessary for inactivation. See chart below.

Using this data, a determination of spray nozzles, spray bars, or even conveyers can be established. It is clearly shown that 2.0 ppm of aqueous ozone is very effective in only a short period of time, while higher ozone levels show only marginal improvement.

Ozone can be used in drinking water to inactivate E. coli O157:H7. This has been confirmed by the EPA and recognized as a suitable disinfectant for water.

Gaseous Ozone

The use of gaseous ozone for the elimination of pathogens is less common. There is also less research showing the effects of gaseous ozone on bacteria. The application of gaseous ozone is dependent upon the temperature, humidity, contact time, and ozone levels. Research has been conducted to determine that gaseous ozone will reduce and inactivate E. coli O157:H7, however more research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of ozone within different variables.

Corona vs. UV Ozone

Many users of ozone are made to believe that it will help in every scenario. Ozone chemistry is often totally ignored. UV Ozone, in India, is often recommended for water disinfection, when in reality, ozone offers no benefits in water treatment. Benefits, not the cost, should be the only criteria for selection.

Ozone is a very good disinfectant and many people know it by that. However, the benefits and effectiveness of ozone will depend on the method of ozone generation.

Primarily, there are two ways of producing ozone:

-Ozone using UV lamps

-Ozone by the Corona discharge method

Role of Ozonation

The purpose of ozone is both to perform oxidation, as well as disinfection (oxidation to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, and disinfection to kill bacteria, etc).

Regardless of how much ozone is generated per hour, a minimum concentration of at least 1% is required for both oxidation and disinfection. UV ozone generators cannot perform oxidation and disinfection at the same time at this concentration.

Concentration of Ozone

CD ozone generators can produce ozone at a concentration ranging from 1-16% w/w, compared to 0.1-0.001% w/w by UV ozone. This means that CD ozone generators can produce at concentration from 10 to 1000 times higher than that of UV ozone. The amount of air needed for UV ozone generators is 10 times more than what is needed for a CD ozone generator.

UV Lamps Used

A majority of UV ozone generators will use 454 manometers (nm) radiation. 89% of relative spectral energy of UV lamps are at 254 nm, and low of 218 nm. The maximum production of UV ozone happens at 260-265 nm. Therefore, by using 254 nm UV bulbs, it is impossible to produce more than just traces of ozone.

Mechanism of Action

That is the most important difference between UV ozone generation and CD ozone generation. Ozone generated by UV ozone is immediately decomposed by the UV radiation, which then forms free hydroxyl radicals. In aqueous ozone solutions, these free radicals (OH+) can be very powerful oxidizing agents. However, the disadvantage to these free radicals is that their half-life is around microseconds, and compared to 22 minutes of ozone. Because of this, ozone that is generated by the UV method, cannot be expected to remain in the solution for a sufficient period of time that allows adequate disinfection, even though chemical oxidation can occur.

Recently, UV ozone has started using 172 nm bulbs. These bulbs produce a higher concentration of ozone, but the bulbs themselves have not been commercially available or tested yet.

Why Concentration of Ozone is Significant?

There is only a partial solubility of ozone in water that is governed by Henry’s Law (the solubility of the gas in water is directly proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase). Because of Henry’s Law, the higher the ozone concentration means the greater the solubility into water. The more ozone that is dissolved into water, the more effective it can be as a disinfectant. Through research and studies, it is clear that through UV radiation, there is not much ozone available in the water for both oxidation and disinfection.

Chicks Law Factor

The process in which ozone disinfects is governed by Chick’s Law. This law follows the Contact Time factor. For each strain of bacteria/virus, ozone has different contact times needed to kill that strain. Contact time needs to be controlled or maintained in order for the full benefits of ozone disinfecting to work. Just like antibiotics, each particular antibiotic needs a certain amount of time for it to work effectively. For ozone disinfecting to work, there needs to be enough contact time for it to do its job properly. The most important factors in ozone disinfection are concentration and time, both are not achievable with UV ozone generation.

Ozone can more easily destroy air-borne bacteria and viruses rather than water borne organisms. That is why the ozone requirement for air treatment is so low. That is another reason that UV ozone is only used in air treatment – high concentrations of ozone are not required for disinfecting. Ozone only has to spread in the air in order to work effectively, whereas in water ozone needs to first be dissolved in order to work.

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Cooling Tower Water Ozonation: Ozone Wonder

Cooling towers use a large amount of toxic chemicals in order to keep the cooling water clean, protecting the cooling towers. Blow down water is discharged to keep the cooling tower safe, and before each discharge the water needs to be treated and cleaned. Environmentalists are putting pressure on officials to make a change.

There has been a wide acceptance of the use of ozone technology around the globe, however, the use of ozone in India has been under question because of the lack of quantified studies and references. OTSIL and WEDECO have undergone some very extensive studies with the use of ozone in cooling towers over the past 5 years, and have quantified the benefits that go with it for the first time.

The use of ozone provides the following benefits in a nutshell:

  • Completely eliminates Biocides, making the discharge water cleaner.
  • More than reduces 90% of Sulphuric acids and de-scalents for large towers.
  • No hazardous chemical storage and Handling such as gas chlorine.
  • Enables the CT (contact time) to be operated at Higher COC (cycle of concentration), eliminates controlled blow down.
  • Prevents scaling, corrosion and reduces algal growth.
  • Saves energy in operation of the Cooling tower.
  • Finally Saves water, saves chemicals costs, allows the power plant comply with environmental needs and make them environmentally friendly.

The same quality of MUW allows the cooling tower to more than double the COC of chemically treated tower, while using ozone.

Studies have shown that there is a buildup (0.1 in) of calcium carbonate scale on the heat exchanger surface that reduces the heat transfer by as much as 40%. The energy savings happen because virtually limited scaling is noted with ozone treatment, and reduction in scale thickness also improves heat transfer efficiency of an ozonated cooling tower, saving power. The power savings is anticipated to be around or above 10%.

Make up water quality is the most important criteria that influences the performance of the cooling tower. If it is good quality, then ozone can be introduced directly into the CT tower basin. By using ozone, you can ensure that the tower water will be very good quality. Ozone is able to remove many dissolved organics in the water, including the ones responsible for odor and color. The presence of organic matter in cooling towers will contaminate the entire cooling tower loop including the condenser, and could be the main reason bio fouling that induces scaling and corrosion. The presence of other bacteria’s as well, including the SRB bacteria, would also increase anaerobic reactions within the tower. It is an accepted fact that ozone in MUW and side stream filtration in a cooling tower can solve more than 60% of problems that cooling tower operators face.