The SB100 Ozone Spray Bottle is a great way to sanitize your hands, and kill any bacteria and viruses on them. The bottle is filled with simple tap water, and when the button is pressed, an electrolitic ozone generating cell creates dissolved ozone as the water sprays out the nozzle. Hold the nozzle about 6 inches from the surface of the hand you are disinfecting, and press the button, allowing both sides if your hand to get completely wet from the spray. Switch hands and spray down your other hand in the same way. Then, rub hands together and allow to air dry. Because ozone (O3) converts quickly back to oxygen (O2), there is no chemical residue left on your hands. There also is no sticky feel left on your hands like that left when you use aloe-based hand sanitizer. In fact, your hands will feel clean and soft and smell fresh.
Great video providing an overview of the 1KNT ozone generator. The 1KNT ozone generator is a China-built ozone generator that is very low cost with excellent features for the price.
We provide these low-cost Enaly series ozone generators to offer our customers a low-cost option for ozone production. we have found the Enaly ozone generators to be very reliable and consistent in quality and therefore we stand behind each unit with a 1-year warranty.
Remote Audible Alarm Panel (RAP-1) is Activated by OS-6 Monitor Relay when Ozone is above 0.1 PPM
In this video the RAP-1, which is a remote audible / visual alarm, is wired to the safety relay switch in the OS-6 Ozone Monitor, which is set to trigger above a 0.1 ppm ozone level. According to OSHA, the exposure limit for workers is 0.1 ppm for 8 hours per day. This relay is permanently programmed to always activate above 0.1 ppm ozone levels.
The decibel levels on the RAP-1 range from 92-103 dBA. The volume can be adjusted by turning the little black dial on the RAP-1 (shown in the video). The RAP-1 light and audible alarm are activated the entire time the OS-6 reads above 0.1 ppm ozone. As the ozone levels drop, the readings drop and result in the flashing light and audible alarm stopping after the reading goes below 0.1 ppm ozone.
Both devices can be purchased through our website. Each product is linked to below:
The K-7404 ozone test kit is a quick, easy, and reliable method to measure dissolved ozone levels in water. This is a manual coloremetric test kit that will measure ozone in water directly up to 3.0 ppm.
The K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit allows you to test for dissolved ozone levels in the range of 0.05 ppm – 3.0 ppm. Included in the kit are 30 test ampoules, which are used up and are replaceable. There is also a cylinder of activator solution included, which causes a chemical reaction during the test. This solution is also used up and can be replaced. The permanent parts of the kit are the box itself, the 25 mL test cup, and the two-color comparators. The lower level color comparator has a range of 0.05 ppm dissolved ozone and goes up to 0.6 ppm dissolved ozone. The higher range color comparator starts where the other one left off, going from 0.6 ppm to 3.0 ppm dissolved ozone.
To take the test, first make sure all the items you need for the test are laid out. This is important because once you take your sample of dissolved ozone, you need to proceed through the test steps quickly to ensure the dissolved ozone doesn’t break down. If you take too long between taking the sample and testing the level of dissolved ozone, you will get an inaccurate reading showing lower levels of dissolved ozone than what truly exists.
Add five drops of activator solution to the empty sample cup. Then add 25 mL of dissolved ozone to the sample cup. Quickly place the tip of the ampoule in the cup, swirl it several times, and snap off the end of the vial at the bottom of the cup. The vial will instantly fill with the sample, because the vial is vacuum sealed. Move the vial back and forth several times so the bubble moves up and down the tube, thoroughly mixing the sample. Wait 1 minute. Compare the color of the test ampoule to the varying levels of pink-colored tubes in the color comparators. The darker the pink, the higher the levels of dissolved ozone. Purchase K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit
Oxidation Technologies builds a wide variety of ozone injection systems. However, we also customize our wide range of systems with standard optional equipment we offer on any one of our systems. Below are a few examples of custom systems we have provided recently.
OST-40 Ozone Injection System with options:
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 PPM
Water flow switch – turn system ON/OFF based on water flow
Ozone off-gas scrubber
High ambient temp alarm
Internal air compressor
Ozone levels in water can be controlled with either the Dissolved ozone meter, or the ORP meter, or both. The ozone generator will turn OFF when high limit ozone in water, or ORP limits are reached.
An internal air compressor is used to provide compressed air to the system, only electrical power is required for this system. Due to the internal compressor and potential environment, the high temp alarm was also added.
OST-20 with Ozone gas control options:
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
Ozone gas output valves x10
HMI touchscreen for ozone level and timer controls
This system features ten ozone output valves to distribute ozone to 10 separate cold storage rooms. Ozone gas levels are measured and controlled with remote ozone meters, ozone levels are displayed on the HMI panel. Both controlled ambient ozone levels, and timers are controlled on the HMI panel. This data can all be viewed remotely from any location via an internet connection.
OST-30 Ozone System with two injection systems:
Second ozone injection loop for 2 water streams
Larger 30-gallon ozone contact tank for water disinfection
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm for surface sanitation loop
ORP meter for water disinfection loop
CDU-30 ozone scrubber
High ambient temp alarm
One ozone injection system with two separate injection loops.
Injection loop #1 features a 30 gallon ozone contact tank and an ORP monitor for water disinfection. An ORP level of 800 or higher is maintained in this tank to provide disinfection in up to 30 GPM of water.
Injection loop #2 features a standard ozone mixing tank with a high range dissolved ozone meter to provide up to 20 GPM of water with ozone levels of 2.0 – 3.0 for surface sanitation applications.
Additional features of this system include a CDU-30 ozone scrubber for ozone off-gas and a high-temperature alarm. A UV-light system was also provided with this system to be used with the water disinfection ozone injection loop. This removes ozone from water and provides disinfected water with no ozone residual for a sensitive downstream process.
OST-60 Ozone System with 50 gallon ozone contat tank:
50-gallon ozone contact tank
Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
Oxygen purity meter
Water flow switch
This system features a 50 gallon ozone contact tank to provide additional contact time with ozone and water. A dissolved ozone meter verifies dissolved ozone levels and offers control. The system can be turned ON/OFF with a water flow switch.
An oxygen purity meter is built into this system. This meter provides a digital reading of actual oxygen purity inside the cabinet. A low O2 purity indicator is provided on the enclosure as an alarm.
OST-100 Ozone System options:
50 gallon ozone contact tank
Low-range dissolved ozone meter
Sanitary ozone transfer pump with VFD and power disconnect
Water flow meter
HMI touchscreen for automated system operation
This custom system was built to specific requirements by this customer. A 50 gallon ozone contact tank was provided on the system. A large ozone transfer pump with a sanitary impeller was provided with a VFD to achieve a specific water flow-rate through the system. This water flow rate was measured with the water flow meter. Dissolved ozone and ORP are measured and controlled on this system based on water flow-rate and customers’ needs. All this control and set-up is performed with the touchscreen HMI panel built onto this system.
Ozone has been used to disinfect water for over 100 years. Many water treatment plants throughout the world not only use ozone to disinfect water, but also remove organic compounds and improve taste and smell. Ozone is an attractive alternative to chemical treatment because it is very effective and does not introduce any new chemicals to the water you use. The drawback has been a high initial cost and equipment maintenance. Advances in technology have brought ozone within the reach of the average home owner, and small scale reliable ozone generating equipment has stood the test of time. Our ozone water treatment(WT) system is simple to operate and monitor to ensure that it is working properly to provide safe water. Here are five routine, simple, and quick checks of your ozone WT system to maintain your peace of mind.
You will know your water’s staying clean when …
1) The desiccant air dryer feels warm.
Put your hand near the top of the air dryer. Does it feel warm? If it is cold, something is not right. The air dryer contains two cylinders of desiccant material. It is the same stuff you find in little packets sometimes placed in the packaging of sensitive electronic equipment. This material absorbs moisture from the air. Eventually it becomes saturated with water and no longer absorbs moisture. The water is removed by heating the desiccant material. The desiccant air dryer is designed to cycle back and forth between two cylinders filled with desiccant material. When air is flowing through one to remove the moisture, the other is being heated to drive off the moisture. If the outside of the box feels warm, this is a good sign that all is well.
2) The moisture indicator is blue.
The moisture indicator provides additional assurance that your ozone equipment is getting dry air. This little viewer contains crystals that change color in the presence of moisture. When it is blue, you can be sure the air feeding your ozone generator is dry. If it is not blue, it could mean that the dryer is not working properly, the crystals have been contaminated in some way, or the crystals need to be replaced. Don’t become alarmed right away. The dryer requires a good six hours of uninterrupted operation to stabilize. If the location is excessively warm or humid, the dryer will not perform well.
If you continue to suspect that the air dryer is not performing as it should after a number of checks over the course of a few days, try to determine what has failed. If the dryer feels warm but the moisture indicator is not blue, it may be that the moisture indicator is contaminated. Newmoisture indicatorsare available from our store. It is also possible that the desiccant material has been contaminated or worn out. In that case, you will need one of ourdesiccant refill kits. If the air dryer feels cold, check the power connections. We also sell replacement heater tubesthat contain the desiccant. If you are unable to verify that the air dryer is working, it may be time for a new dryer.
The only part of the treatment system that is active 24/7 is the desiccant air dryer. All the other components wait until the well pump turns on.
3) The little silver ball in the flowmeter jumps up and hovers when the well pump turns on. (Newer models have a digital reading of air flow)
The flowmeter is a simple device telling us how much gas is flowing through the system. Air is pulled through the air dryer and ozone generator by suction produced by the black plastic venturi. Suction is created by the flow of water through the venturi. When the well pump turns on, water rushes through a narrow passage in the venturi. With sufficient flow, the water pressure differential between the input and output of the venturi creates air suction. Air flows through the tubing as it is pulled into the venturi. The little silver ball is lifted by this gas flow giving a visual indication that air is flowing through the system.
If no air flow is created when the water pump turns on, remove the ozone tube connected to the black venturi. Place your finger over the hole to see if suction is created. As long as the pump is running, the venturi should create air suction. If there is no suction, remove the check valve that is threaded directly to the venturi. Clear out any rust or mineral deposits. If the pump stops, water will squirt from this port, so try to open enough faucets to keep the pump running. If you are unsuccessful with getting air suction from the venturi, it could mean that the well pump is not pumping enough water through the venturi to create suction, or the venturi has worn out.
If you do have air suction at the venturi, but still no air flow indicated on your flowmeter, it may be that a check valve needs to be replaced or something else is blocking the flow. The source of blockage needs to be found and cleared before ozone generator will operate. The ozone generator turns on when it senses a sufficient flow of air. Most ozone generators will have a blue light indicating that the ozone generator is running.
4) You can smell ozone from the off-gas vent
But can you be sure that that sufficient ozone is being generated to disinfect your water? When your system is operating properly, left-over ozone that does not get dissolved into the water is vented from the top of your contact tank. If you remove the tubing from the off-gas vent, you should smell ozone when the system is running. It might take a little while for enough ozone gas to build up for venting, but when it accumulates at the top of the tank, it will be vented, often in short spurts.
5) Testing your water for dissolved ozone levels.
Ozone is a more powerful disinfectant than Chlorine. It destroys, inactivates, and prevents growth of bacteria and viruses with very low levels of dissolved ozone in water. As little as .3 ppm dissolved ozone for contact time of 5 minutes provides a 5 log (100,000 bacteria reduced to 1, 99.999% reduction) reduction of most bacteria and viruses. Contaminants are exposed to much higher levels of ozone when it passes through the venturi. By the time the water leaves the contact tank, any contaminants have been in contact with ozone long enough for most of them to be destroyed. The ozone has done its job and very little is left in the water that is distributed to your home. Enough will be left over to prevent growth. As little as 0.01 ppm will prevent growth. These low levels of ozone leaving your contact tank can be measured with our low costK-7404 dissolved ozone test kit. You don’t want much ozone left in your water. Too much ozone left over in the water can lead to irritating ozone off-gas at the point of use.
Our journey to the center of an ozone generating plasma cell begins with a ride around a not-so-lazy river. Perhaps you’ve enjoyed floating in a raft around a lazy river at a hotel or water park. Picture these rafts as electrons flowing through a circuit. Moving magnetic fields are pushing electrons through the fluid media of metal atoms. They follow the circular paths of circuits like rafts floating around and around the lazy river ride. A pump continually pushes the water along.
Unlike the continuous flow in one direction of direct current (DC), alternating current continuously reverses the flow of electrons. Imagine the lazy river model constantly changing direction. The electrons first flow one way, slow, reverse, and rush the other way. The electric supply to your home goes through 60 cycles per second. Our lazy river model begins to defy imagination at this rate of change. You can think of electrons as virtually weightless, unlike all the water and rafts in a lazy river. Electrons are quite capable of reversing direction very quickly.
Energy Transfer The flow of electrons through a wire might be apparent from the glow of a light bulb. As electrons squeeze through a resistive part of the circuit, the wire heats up transferring energy to heat and light. Other things are happening outside the wire. Hold a compass near a wire in which current is flowing, and the needle is pulled away from North. Whenever an electric current flows, a magnetic field develops around the wire. Stop the flow, and the field collapses.
Wrap this conductor into a coil, and the magnetic field is intensified. Add an iron core, and a magnet is born. A continuous flow supports a useful magnetic field, capable of pushing the rotor of a motor or the lever of a switch. Again we notice a transfer of energy, this time from electric current flow to some mechanical motion. Energy transfer doesn’t stop there.
Energy transfer is reversed in a magnetic field when the electric current stops. When current stops or reverses, the magnetic field collapses. The collapsing magnetic field gives electrons a push in the coiled conductor. This phenomena opens up the possibility of generating a flow of electrons in a second circuit that is isolated from the first circuit. It also introduces radio waves. Imagine a second lazy river next to yours. It doesn’t have a pump, so the water is still. But imagine an invisible force generated by the flowing of the first river pushing the water along in the second. Such a transfer of energy happens with the flow of electrons and is essential to ozone production within a plasma cell.
A Dam in the River: The Plasma Cell Heart
A dam in the lazy river brings the rafts to a halt, but build two Olympic sized pools on either side of the dam. Now the river continues to flow awhile even with a dam because it takes time to fill the pool. Depending on the strength of the pump, the water flows for a while as one pool gets a little deeper while the other is drawn down. If you can pump one pool much deeper than the other, a significant stress builds on the dam. Our lazy river could get exciting if the dam were to burst. We are getting closer to the center of a plasma cell.
In your mind you need to convert the Olympic sized swimming pools in our lazy river circuit to large flat pieces of metal. In the electron world, the dam between these two plates is an insulator, a material that prevents the flow of electrons. Electrons pile up on one side while they are drawn down on the other side. Electrons are the negative charge. Pulling electrons away leaves one side with deficiency of electrons: a positive charge. If the insulator were breached, a powerful surge of electrons would create a dramatic spark. It would be equivalent to the deep swimming pool emptying to the shallow one in milliseconds.
It is here at the “dam” where we discover the center of a plasma cell. When the distance between the two electrically charged plates is made smaller, the electrostatic forces between them grow exponentially. In other words, a thinner dam makes a more powerful electrostatic field. But a thin dam is also weaker and more susceptible to failure. The goal is a material that is strong and a good electrical insulator. Ceramic and quartz serve well for this purpose. But without some oxygen present in this high electrical pressure environment, we only have a capacitor and no ozone production.
We need to introduce one more element: a thin layer of oxygen as part of the “electron dam.” We can think of the dam as a sandwich of two insulators with a very thin slice of oxygen between them. When oxygen is exposed to the tremendous electrostatic forces found within this space between highly charged surfaces, the oxygen molecules are pulled apart and re-combine in highly energized forms. I would like to zoom in for a closer look at this sliver of space.
A Peak Inside the World Between Dielectric Barriers
Photographs of this space between the two insulators reveals what appears to be a mini, but intense electrical storm. We are used to thinking about lightning bolts jumping from one charged conductor to another, but in this electrostatic microcosm, the mini “bolts of lightning” are jumping from the surface of one insulator to the surface of the second insulator. In the presence of the strong electric field, the molecules within the insulator become polarized. This means that the electrons are pulled by the positive electrode toward one end of the molecule that make up the insulator. Even though electrons are unable to flow through the insulator, the polarization sets up “pools” of electrons on the surface. We call the insulating material used in in this application a “dielectric.” The type of ozone generator we are entering here is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generator.
Exactly what is happening in this high electrical pressure world between dielectric barriers has been and continues to be a topic of considerable research and study. Already around 1897, John Townsend discovered that the strong electric field in the oxygen space between dielectrics initiates electron avalanches. A free electron among the oxygen atoms accelerates very quickly because it is attracted to the positively charged plate (anode). When it reaches a high enough velocity and collides with an oxygen molecule, it knocks off another electron, turning the molecule into a positively charged ion. This ion begins to move in the opposite direction toward the negatively charged plate (cathode) while the two electrons further accelerate toward the anode and collide with more oxygen molecules. As the growing electron cloud races toward the anode, it leaves a trail of positively charged ions in its wake.
This trail of ions and free electrons is conductive, and allows for a discharge of electric current through the oxygen. The discharge is the flow of electrons that has gathered on the surface of the dielectric towards the positive charge on the other side of the oxygen gap. It is this discharge of energy that breaks the oxygen molecule bonds releasing free oxygen atoms. Some re-combine with single atoms, and others combine with pairs to form highly energized ozone molecules made of three oxygen atoms. The world here at the center of an ozone generator is a stormy one swarming with surges of electrons.
DBD: A Specialized Form of Corona Discharge
The discharge is similar to a spark, but not nearly as hot. It does not result in a discharge of the electrodes. Only small areas of the inside surface of the dielectric discharge with each electron avalanche. The strong electric field induces a secondary, high voltage mini-circuit within the oxygen gap. Thousands of these discharges can be repeated as long as the voltage supplied to the anode and cathode continues to increase.
The power supply for an ozone generator alternates this electric field thousands of time each second. When the pressure (voltage) rises through the threshold that sets off electron avalanches, the discharge storm erupts. Since the electric field changes thousands of times each second, the oxygen gap experiences thousands of storms each second. The optimal frequency and voltage depends on the gap size and oxygen pressure. The electronics controlling the voltage need to be tuned to match the particular dielectric arrangement for optimal ozone production.
The benefits of setting off thousands of mini discharges in a space between insulators instead of simply allowing a spark to ark between the positive and negative electrodes are the following: 1) an arc generates so much heat that it melts most materials. Such an arc is useful for welding or plasma torches, but would destroy an ozone generator. 2) Ozone production is minimal with an arc. Most of the energy is converted to heat and the heat destroys ozone. 3) Producing many small discharges from dielectric surfaces within a strong electrical field stays cooler and yields more ozone.
This form of ozone generation is called “Dielectric Barrier Discharge” (DBD). DBD belongs to a category of corona discharge. Corona discharge was observed by ancient sailors on the masts of their ships as a flare of luminous plasma at the tips of the mast and other pointed parts of their ship when the atmosphere is highly charged. The phenomenon occurs when strong electrostatic forces concentrate at sharp points and break down air to form plasma. You can observe this phenomena with an electrostatic generator in a dark room. Many of the small ozone generators sold for home use rely on a form of corona discharge from sharp points. Higher quantities of high concentration ozone used in commercial applications often use DBD type ozone generators.
Ozone can also be produced with ultraviolet light and radiation bombardment. The ozone layer which protects earth from harmful radiation is produced by ultraviolet light with a wavelength less than 200 nm. Ultraviolet light between about 200 and 300 nm destroys ozone. The ozone layer is maintained with a balance of ozone generation and destruction with ultraviolet light. Ozone can be created in water with electrolysis. Passing an electric current through water breaks the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Using specific electrodes results in oxygen combining to form ozone.
Here at Oxidation Technologies we do not build DBD plasma cells, but we rely on companies who continue to research and build quality generators for a wide range of applications. We specialize in integrating the right ozone generators into specific applications. Dissolving ozone into water requires ozone generators that make higher concentrations of ozone. Many applications can utilize low pressure or even slight vacuum to minimize the danger of ozone leaks. Sometimes controlling precise levels of low ozone concentrations can best be attained with an ultraviolet ozone generator. Whatever your application, we have the expertise to integrate the right ozone generator to your process.
Legionnaires’ disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by breathing mist from water containing the bacteria. The bacteria thrive in the warm water found in whirlpool spas, cooling towers, fountains, humidifiers, produce misters, etc. Symptoms of Legionnaires’ disease include high fever, a cough, and sometimes muscle aches and headaches.
The rate of reported cases has increased over 5 fold since 2000, and deadly outbreaks continue today unabated. The reason or reasons behind this increase are unclear at this point, but ozone has proven to be effective at controlling the bacteria in water. Whether the bacteria are flourishing within a 100 gallon fountain or a 1000 ton cooling tower, the engineers at Oxidation Technologies will maintain will provide the precise dose of ozone needed for safe water.
Ozone that is safely dissolved into water has a tremendous disinfectant power and simply turns back into oxygen after expending its energy. As little as 0.01 ppm (1 part ozone to 100 million parts water) prevents the growth of these bacteria. We provide cost effective equipment and long term service to ensure safe and effective use of ozone for bacteria control.
The equipment needed to dissolve low levels of ozone into water can be very cost effective and sustainable for many water systems. A home well-water system uses one of the smallest ozone generators we sell to dissolve enough ozone when the well pump runs to disinfect all the water needed in a typical home. As a general rule of thumb for industrial cooling towers, five grams of ozone per hour is needed for every 100 tons of tower cooling capacity.
The 50 g/h ozone generator needed to supply a 1000 ton cooling tower will also require an oxygen concentrator, venturi, ORP controller, and sometimes a booster pump. The oxygen concentrator and controller comes in a complete package with our OXG systems. The following study conducted by Mazzei reports a one year payback for ozone use due to lower chemical and cleaning costs.
We also provide the convenience of a quarterly preventative maintenance plan to make sure the system continues to perform at peak efficiency and avoid costly repairs due to neglected maintenance. We often work with an independent water company that provides routine testing for the customer to make sure water quality remains good and inform us of any problems.
High iron content in water often results in disagreeable metallic taste and unappealing color in cooked vegetables. Although not a health threat, iron bacteria thrive in this water and contribute to biofilm and discoloration. Dissolved iron eventually leads to ugly stains on fixtures and clogged pipes. Removing iron from your water supply is well worth the investment.
The most common piece of water treatment equipment for homeowners is the water softener. Your water softener is designed to remove calcium from the water. It may remove some of the iron, but iron is prone to stick to the resin bed and is difficult to flush out.
An iron filter is a much more effective method for removing iron. There are a variety of filter systems, but they all follow the two step process of oxidizing the iron and then filtering it out. Iron that is dissolved in water can’t be filtered out until it is oxidized or made into larger rust particles that are large enough to be filtered.
Simply aerating water containing dissolved iron will begin the oxidation process needed for filtration. This method is simple, but can introduce some new problems such as increased bacteria growth. It is also slower and difficult to control effectively.
Some compact home iron filtration devices contain media which accelerates the oxidization process and also serves as a filter to remove the oxidized particles. Like a water softener, these systems require periodic back flushing and eventually require chemical regeneration. The effectiveness of these systems is dependent on PH levels and do not disinfect the water. Iron bacteria can still cause problems by leaving ugly stains on water fixtures.
Adding a chemical feed pump to introduce chlorine, calcium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate increases the oxidation. These systems are able to remove higher iron levels and also serve to disinfect the water. The disadvantage is the ongoing cost of dangerous chemicals.
Ozone has been used for water treatment for over a hundred hears. It is used extensively for bottled water treatment because it is an effective disinfectant and improves taste and color. Oxidation Technologies specializes in harnessing the power of ozone for a variety of water treatment needs.