Building Your Own Ozone Chamber

Ozone Chambers

There are many different options for ozone chambers. Many chambers will have an integrated turnkey system where ozone will be produced from the chamber itself. However, if you are looking for a more cost-effective option, or, you already have a chamber, room, or enclosure you want to control ozone levels inside of, building your own ozone chamber is a great alternative. This article will go over the different products necessary for assembling an ozone chamber, as well as some different specifications to take note of to make sure you get the products that will best fit your applications.

For more information on custom ozone chambers, as well as the products we suggest using, Please Click Here!

Here we can see the inside of one of our chambers, with an internal fan to ensure ozone is being properly circulated.

Components

Ozone Generator – The most important component is the ozone generator to produce ozone for your ozone chamber!

Choose the ozone generator size and output, normally rated in g/hr (grams per hour), based upon the following factors

  • Size of your ozone chamber – larger chamber = more ozone demand
  • Level of ozone required inside your chamber, normally measured in ppm. Higher ozone levels desired will require larger ozone generators
  • Temperature of the chamber – higher temperatures will increase the ozone half-life and demand more ozone
  • Organic loading in the chamber – material in the chamber that will consume ozone due to natural organic loading should be considered

See our selection of ozone generators HERE.

Ozone Monitor – An ozone monitor is required to measure ozone in the chamber and switch a relay in the ozone monitor to control the ozone levels. The ozone monitor will be located outside of the chamber with either a remote sensor, or small Teflon tubing inlet port placed inside the chamber to detect ozone levels.

Two main options are available to measure ozone

  • UV based ozone analyzer – pulls a sample of ozone gas from the chamber, passes through a UV lamp and measures ozone by determining how much ozone is absorbed by the UV lamp. This method allows for ozone detection accuracy up to 1%, and measurements from 0.001 ppm up to 10,000 ppm and even higher.
  • Remote mount sensor based ozone monitor – an ozone sensor is placed inside the chamber and wired to the main ozone monitor placed outside the chamber. This method allows for ozone detection accuracy ranging from 5 – 20% and measurement from 0.01 ppm up to 200 ppm reliably. These sensors are a lower price point than the UV analyzer and are normally used when cost is a concern.

The ozone measurement device must have a built-in relay that can be wired to the RCB-1 relay box that will turn the ozone generator ON/OFF. This relay should be easy to set and alter if necessary.

See our selection of ozone monitors HERE

See our selection of UV based ozone analyzers HERE

Relay Control – The relay control box has three components to it necessary for creating the ozone chamber. By looking at the image above, we can see the three different cords coming from the bottom of it (smaller white box on the far right side of the above image). Its far-left cord is simply connected to a wall outlet to supply power. The thinner, middle cord connects to the ozone monitor (far left, white/blue item) and then its far-right cord connects to the ozone generators power cord, and supplies power to the ozone generator. When it comes to which relay control box to use, Oxidation Technologies offers the RCB-1.

Ambient Ozone Sensor – We also highly recommend using either the C-30ZX Ozone Monitor, or the SM-70 Ozone Monitor to read for ozone in the air. This ensures that your environment is safe and free of ozone. Both of these monitors offer accurate ozone readings, compact designs, and low maintenance making them easy to use as well as extremely efficient.

How It Works

Looking at the diagrams below, ‘DIAGRAM 1’ shows the set-up for a custom ozone chamber when you are using one of the bench mount ozone analyzers, and then ‘DIAGRAM 2’ is showing the same basic scheme, but with a remote ozone sensor. However, the basic procedures are going to be the same, independent of which monitor set-up you decide to go with.

Following the diagrams below, we can see the procedures that will occur when your custom ozone chamber is working properly. First, using dry-air or oxygen as the feed-gas, your ozone generator will begin producing ozone for the chamber. Then, the ozone analyzer (or remote sensor) will read how much, in PPM, ozone is present in the chamber. The reading from the ozone analyzer will then be transferred to the RCB-1 relay control. Based on the reading given to the RCB-1, it will transfer a signal to the ozone generator to either continue producing ozone for the chamber, or to stop the ozone production.

DIAGRAM 1
DIAGRAM 2

Contact Us

For help creating your custom ozone chamber, please contact us here!

Data Logging on the D16 Portable Ozone Monitor

The following screenshots show the data logging on the D16 Portable Ozone Monitor.

For a downloadable PDF with this information, Please Click Here!

For more information/purchasing options for the D16, Please Click Here!

Click Here to contact us for more information regarding your ozone needs.

Product Spotlight: 5000BF Ozone Generator

5000BF Ozone Generator

The 5000BF Ozone Generator is capable of producing 7 g/hr of ozone from oxygen, or 1.8 g/hr of ozone from dry air. This generator is perfect for all kinds of applications, from personal use to industrial settings, as well as experimental testing. The compact design (6x12x17) and affordable pricing make it a great option for many different uses.

Key Features:

  • Great value in ozone generators
  • Air cooled ozone generator – no cooling water required
  • Adjustable ozone output 0-100%
  • Integrated oxygen/ozone flow meter
  • Integrated amp meter to show electrical discharge to cell
  • Benchmount with durable rubber isolation feet
  • High quality aluminum enclosoure
  • Compact size and easy to use
  • Corona discharge ozone generator cell

Specifications:

  • 7 g/hr ozone output from 3 LPM oxygen
  • 1.8 g/hr ozone output from 5 LPM dry air
  • 5 PSI pressure rating (can operate under light vacuum also)
  • Dimensions: 6-inch high x 12-inch wide x 17-inch depth
  • Weight: 8 lbs
  • Feed-gas: Dry air, or Oxygen

For more information, as well as purchasing options, Please Click Here

In this video, we used the MAX-5 Oxygen Concentrator to supply our feed gas, Please Click Here to view all of our Oxygen Generators.

Ozone Mass Transfer – What is so Important?

Having the proper ozone equipment is only part of the solution. Ozone is a gas and is generated in situ. Making sure that this ozone gas is transferred into a liquid and then mixed properly is very important. This process is known as ozone mass transfer.

Making sure that the ozone is properly dissolved and allowed a complete chemical reaction of the gas is how to ensure a reliable ozone mass transfer. Most failures of ozone applications are the results of faulty ozone mass transfers.

The Solubility of Ozone and Importance of Choosing Correct Mass Transfer Devices

Temperature has an effect on the different solubility of ozone. Ozone is able to dissolve more and easier in cooler water. Because of this, ozone doses for the for the same applications will differ from country to country. When a proper ozone mass transfer is conducted, it will enhance the solubility levels of ozone, thereby ensuring required actions of ozone. A list of simple mass transfer devices are:

1) Hydro injector/ venturi/ eductors

2) Diffusers

3) Static mixers

4) Mass multipliers

5) Combination of the above

Venturis: These devices use high water pressure to suck the ozone into the water. They achieve at least 90-95% efficiency because of their design. The pump required has to be sized properly, or there will be ozone leakages.

Diffusers: These are devices that bubble ozone across water in order to diffuse it into the water. They work under normal water pressure. The number of diffusers needed will be determined by the volume of air, and surface area of the contact tank. Diffusions requires a minimum bubbling height of 5-6 meters for maximum efficacy. Some problems that arise from diffusing is the channeling of bubbles, and inadequate gas liquid contact. Because the diffusers is always in contact with high concentration ozone, it is important that the diffuser is made of the right material. SS or ceramic diffusers are the most preferred materials. For waters with high turbidity, diffusers are not recommended. Ozone destructors are also needed for the destruction of any unused ozone.

Static Mixers: These are devices placed in a pipe that are always used in conjunction with venturis. If used after venturi injections, they increase the ozone mass transfer. The material of construction is also very important here as well. SS 316 are normally used.

Mass Multipliers: These are devices that are placed in pips that discharge water mixed with ozone under high pressure into the water. They are normally used for large applications and in conjunction with venturis. Mass Multipliers are normally made of Kynar plastics.

Combination of Devices: A combination of mass transfer devices are often used. Combinations work efficiently and will guarantee higher percentage of mass transfer. However, in larger applications, it can also increase the cost it takes for mass transfer. This is something that is very important to keep in mind when planning your method of mass transfer.

Other factors that determine the efficiency of the ozone mass transfer are:

1) pH of the water: needs to be between 7-8 pH.

2) Temperature of the water: the higher the temperature the less the ozone will dissolve.

3) The concentration at which the ozone is used. The higher the concentration, the more ozone will dissolve.

4) The pressure: ozone mass transfer under pressure is recommended and this can reduce ozone dose, since efficiency is very high.

5) The design of the contact tank: ensures that the diffused ozone is efficiently mixed in the water.

Other Forms of Ozone Mass Transfer: There are also some unconventional types of ozone mass transfer that can be used with equal efficacy. U Tube devices are one of these methods. U Tubes have water that is forced into the tube under pressure and the water mixes within the pipelines when the direction of the water if forcibly changed. Essentially, it is like using a diffuser system under pressure. A U Tube system that is designed properly can have an efficiency of over 95%.

Ozone Uses in Odor Control

The Problem Today

Awareness is growing for a variety of hazardous airborne microbes such as mold, fungi, bacteria and viruses found within the indoor environment. Exposure to these microbes can occur in a variety of indoor settings such as residences, office buildings, hospitals, airplanes, and medical and dental offices. High levels of microbes can also be found in most enclosed locations where people gather such as schools, theatres, restaurants, etc.

The average person spends approximately 90% of their time indoors. This can increase their risk of health more than the outdoors.

Medical research linked Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to numerous allergies, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease and cancer. In addition to this, there are many less severe symptoms and diseases such as congestion, coughing, dermatitis, dry throat, headaches, eye irritation and viral infections that also reduce your well-being and health.

A reduction in fresh air supply in most buildings have a negative side effect of withholding pollutants inside the building. Reductions may be used to conserve air conditioning cooling costs. This affects the health in both short and long term for the occupants of the buildings.

Odor

Most odoriferous (aromatic) substances are all organic compounds conjugated linkages which are easily attacked by ozone.

Ozone is particularly useful in odor control in the following areas:

  • Smoke Odor Removal: Hotel rooms after heavy smoking or parties, cleaners, painting and decorating operations, new carpets.
  • Buildings: Air recirculation systems, effectively stops algae, fungus and bacteria formation, saves maintenance expenses, cuts down the amount of air needed. It also saves fuel expense.
  • Apartments: Destroys smelly food and other odors from various apartments, kills odors of garbage rooms and deodorizes party rooms. Most effective in removing odors in all types of ventilated office and buildings.
  • Beauty Parlors: Destroys odors of hair sprays, nail polish, perms, etc. Keeps air fresh.
  • Super Market Stores: To keep air fresh all the time. Ideal for meat preparation areas, meat and vegetable coolers, fresh fish areas, etc.
  • Department Stores: Store smells nice and fresh when opened in the morning.
  • Banks: Vault areas, storage areas, central ventilating areas, etc.
  • Hospitals: Chronic care rooms ICU & ICCU, cancer rooms, laundries, food preparation area, garbage rooms, operation theatres, and wards, etc.
  • Forensic Centers: Morgue rooms, autopsy rooms, laboratory exhaust systems, etc.
  • Pet Hospitals: Removal of stench of animal excreta and odors.
  • Process Areas: Removes odor from process areas especially in the sea food industry chemical factory, and to maintain sterile areas in pharmaceutical process areas, electronic industries, etc.

Advantages of Ozone in Air Treatment

  • Cleans and disinfects air.
  • Biological air contaminants are destroyed.
  • Effective against microbes, endo toxins, VOCs and organic odors.
  • No toxic chemicals need be employed.

To see Oxidation Technologies wide variety of ozone generators, please click here!

Introducing: PRO-5 Oxygen Concentrator

THE PRO-5 Oxygen Concentrator

When it comes to Non-Medical oxygen usage, the Pro-5 Oxygen Concentrator comes second to none. 30 years of success in the oxygen industry has now produced the Pro-5 Series. The proven design and years of technological advancements have now brought one of the best oxygen concentrators on the market. The reimagined and sleek device proves that not only does extremely high quality oxygen production have to take up space, but it also does not have to break the bank. Along with the good looks, this product’s wheels, carry handle, and light-weight (only 35 lbs) make it an incredibly portable device as well. Even with it’s light weight, the tough thermoplastic covering also makes it a very durable product. The Pro-5 also comes with a safety alarm to offer an enhanced peace-of-mind while it is being used. All-in-all, this low maintenance oxygen concentrator is great for a multitude of applications.

Typical Application

Manufacturing

-Glass Work/Blowing

-Brazing/Soldering/Jewelry

-Thermal/Chemical Oxidation

Environmental

-Ozone (Generator) Feed Gas

-Waste/Water Treatment

-Environmental Remediation

Additional

-Fish Farming

-Aquaponics

-Hydroponics

Product Specs:

For more information + purchasing options: Please click here.

Product Spotlight: OZX-300 Ozone Generator

With our website recently adding the OZX-300 Air Dryer, it is time to look into exactly what the OZX-300 Ozone Generator and Air Dryer are used for.

OZX-300 Air Dryer

The OZX-300 Air Dryer is a filter that comes included with your ozone generator. The ozone generator will begin to perform less efficiently as the dust and humidity in your air supply grows. The Air Dryer ensures that your ozone generator is being fed the cleanest air possible. The Air Dryer is a plastic tube that contains small silica beads on the inside, the silica beads then remove a majority of the moisture from the air that goes through it.

The Air Dryer is critical for making sure your ozone generator is working at its peak capabilities, and it is also included when you order an OZX-300 Ozone Generator. After being used, the beads within the air dryer will turn from a red color, into more of a dark greenish color. Once the bead color has transition, simply put them in a microwave or oven to adjust them, as heat will bring the beads back to their original red. (Note: Do not heat the container as a whole, the extended/extreme heat exposure will cause cracking. The beads can be reheated approximately 4-5 times before they will need to be replaced. For replacing beads, please contact Oxidation Technologies. For more information, please look here.)

OZX-300 Ozone Generator

While Oxidation Technologies offers a wide array of industrial-sized ozone generators (OXP, OXG, and OXW) we also offer the OZX-300 Ozone Generator to be used for smaller applications. The OZX-300 allows for smaller objects to be ozonated, without worry of breaking the bank. This ozone generator produces 500 mg/hr of ozone and offers an output dial as well as an adjustable timer to help enhance usability.

This product is shipped with an integrated air pump, ozone tubing, diffusers and an air dryer. All of this means that when the product arrives at your door, it will come ready to produce ozonated water. The OZX-300 Ozone Generator is also great for other applications such as removing bacteria and infectants from fruits & vegetables as well as extending shelf-life expectancy for fresh produce, and even removing odors.

SpecsFeatures
500 mg/hr ozone output (concentration of 4.2 g/m3 [.33%] at 2 LPM flow rateIntegrated air pump + ozone tubing + diffusers
2 LPM air flow rate with integrated air pumpAdjustable ozone output
3/4 PSI air pump pressure (approx. 1.5 feet of water depth)Selectable timers
1/4” barbed connection for inlet/outletRechargeable Air Dryer

More information on the OZX-300 Air Dryer is here.

More information on the OZX-300 Ozone Generator is here.

Dissolve ozone in water with bubble diffusers

Ozone gas can be dissolved into liquid with simple bubble diffusers, similar to what is commonly used in the bottom of a fish aquarium for aeration. This is a simple and cost-effective method to dissolve ozone gas into liquid. As ozone is partially soluble into liquid the ozone gas will transfer into liquid immediately at the interface between the ozone gas bubble surface and the surrounding water.

Diffusers implement a gas permeable membrane that will disperse the gas stream into many smaller ozone gas bubbles in the water. As these ozone gas bubbles naturally rise to the surface of the water that ozone will transfer into the water due to contact between the liquid and gas bubble.

Advantages:

  • Low cost
  • Easy to setup
  • Low energy – does not require water pumps or elevated water pressures
  • Simple, reliable operation long-term

Disadvantages:

  • Generally the least efficient method of dissolving ozone into liquid
  • Diffusers can become plugged and may require periodic replacement
  • Difficult to use in pressurized water flows

Ozone gas is partially soluble into liquid. However, using proper methods and equipment high mass transfer efficiencies can be realized with any method of dissolving ozone into water. Review the tips below for success using an ozone gas bubble diffuser in your ozone application.

Fundamentals of ozone solubility:

  • Lower temperatures increase the solubility rate of ozone gas into liquid
  • Higher pressures increase the solubility rate of ozone gas into liquid
  • Higher ozone gas concentrations increase the solubility rate of ozone gas into liquid

Design considerations for your bubble diffuser and column:

Diffuser micron ratings – smaller is better!

Ozone gas bubble diffusers will be rated in micron size, or resulting bubble size the diffuser will create. The membrane that splits the gas stream into small bubbles will have pore sizes, smaller pores will result in smaller bubbles. This pore size or bubble size is normally referred to in a micron rating.

Micron = micrometer. Equal to 0.001 millimeter, or about 0.000039 inch

Smaller bubbles create more surface area of the gas the ozone is flowing in. Greater surface area will increase the ability of ozone gas to transfer into the liquid. See the example below:

Ozone gas bubble size compared

The image above shows the same gas volume (1 ft3) shown in one bubble, 8 identical bubbles, and 512 (8 tall x 8 wide x 8 deep) identical bubbles.

  • One 1 cubic foot sphere = 4.8 ft2 surface area
  • Eight 0.125 cubic foot spheres = 1 cubic foot = 1.2 ft2 each = 9.66 ft2 total surface area
  • Eighty 0.0125 cubic foot spheres = 1 cubic foot = 0.26 ft2 each = 20.8 ft2 total surface area
  • 512 0.001953 cubic foot spheres = 1 cubic foot = 0.07567 each = 38.7 ft2 total surface area

A bubble size ¼ the size (4.8 / 4 = 1.2) results in 8x more bubbles and double the overall surface area.

Relating this to your ozone gas flow. A 25 micron diffeser will create bubble sizes ¼ the size of a diffuser rated for 100 micron therefore creating more than 2x the surface area of gas contacting the water at the same flow-rate of gas flowing into water.

Smaller really is better!

Tank design – skinny is better!

Gas bubbles will naturally rise to the surface of water due to buoyancy. Therefore, the taller your tank, column or ozone tank is the longer your gas bubble will remain in the water increasing the opportunity for the gas to transfer into the liquid.

Taller tanks will also increase the water 

pressure at the bottom of the tank where the ozone gas diffuser will likely be placed. Greater water pressure will increase the natural solubility of ozone gas into liquid. For example:

11.33 feet of water = 5 PSI

5 PSI = 34% increase in ozone solubility vs 0 PSI

Increasing your water column by 11.33 feet will increase your solubility of ozone, or your mas potential ppm of ozone in water by 34%.

1 ppm becomes 1.34 ppm with no other changes.

A great example of separate columns is shown in the image and dimensions below. Both columns are 3 liters in volume, with a change in diameter from 2” to 4” the height is increased from 12” to 58”

If you have the opportunity when desiring your tank or reactor, choose the smallest diameter possible.

Skinny really is better!

Counter Current Flow

Ozone contacting basins can be designed with counter-current flow, where the water flows counter-current to the gas bubbles. While gas bubbles will naturally rise to the surface of the liquid due to buoyancy liquid can be forced into the path of the gas bubble to create additional turbulence. The diagram below shows a simple contactor basin design using baffles to create counter-current and con-current flows of ozone gas to liquid

Ozone gas countercurrent flow with bubble diffuser

This same technique can be applied to any column in flowing water using piping water flowing down a column that ozone gas is rising within. Consider this simple technique when designing your tank or piping system

Full page info on ozone diffusers HERE

Fundementals on ozone solubility into liquid HERE

Understand dissolved ozone vs ozone dosage

Purchase ozone diffusers here

Ozone Dosage vs Dissolved Ozone

Ozone dosage = the amount of ozone applied to the water

Dissolved ozone = the amount of ozone measured in the water

Ozone dosage into water does not equal dissolved ozone in water. Ozone is generated as gas and must be dissolved into water in many applications. As ozone is only partially soluble in water mechanical mixing equipment is necessary to dissolve ozone into water efficiently. There are no systems that will achieve 100% mass transfer of ozone gas into water, therefore the dissolved ozone levels will always be lower than the applied ozone, or ozone dosage rate.

Final measured dissolved ozone levels in water will be affected by water quality contamination, water temperature, and the efficiency of your mechanical mixing equipment used to dissolve ozone into water.

To achieve a specific, targeted dissolved ozone level the oxidizable compounds in the water must be overcome along with any other ozone scavenging conditions, also keep in mind the ozone half-life may come into play depending upon the duration of time used to achieve your target dissolved ozone level.

The quantity of ozone you attempt to put into the water will always exceed the amount of ozone actually absorbed into the solution.

Due to the low solubility rate of ozone gas into a liquid and due to system inefficiencies, a portion of the ozone off-gases without being absorbed into the water. This off-gassed ozone must then be vented outside or destroyed with an ozone destruct unit.

The ratio of ozone gas dosage to the final dissolved level is commonly referred to as the mass transfer rate. This refers to the amount of ozone gas that was measured as dissolved vs the ozone dosage rate. This is commonly referred to as a percentage. Such as a 90% mass transfer rate of ozone would indicate that 90% of the ozone dosage, 1ppm for example, would result in 0.9 ppm of ozone measured in water.

Different methods of ozone injection will achieve different dissolved ozone levels into water due to different efficiencies and mass transfer of ozone into water.  A few examples of these options are shown in the images below:

Ozone dissolved into water with bubble diffusers
Ozone dissolved with a bubble diffuser is simple and cost effective. However, in most cases offers the lowest mass transfer efficiency of any method used and therefore the greatest difference between ozone dosage and measured dissolved ozone in water.
Ozone dissolved into water via pump and venturi
Ozone dissolved with a pump and venturi injector is simple to set-up and fairly efficient. This will mix water in the tank well and achieve higher mass transfer of ozone into water than a typical bubble diffuser due to the forceful mixing action of a venturi.
Ozone dissolved into water via an ozone injection skid
Ozone dissolved into water with an ozone injection skid. In this application a dedicated, pressurized ozone mixing tank can be used to increase mass transfer of ozone into water as ozone solubility increases as water pressure increases. A system like this will have the lowest difference between ozone gas dosed into water and resulting measured dissolved ozone in water.

More info ozone solubility found HERE

Full Webpage on this topic HERE

Measuring Dissolved Ozone in Chloronated Water

How to dilute sample to extend test range

Is there a way to measure dissolved ozone (0.5 to 3.0 ppm) in water with a high chlorine level. Yes, there is a way to to this.

First, be sure to use the Indigo Method.

The Indigo Method

“References: Bader H. and J. Hoigné, “Determination of Ozone in Water by the Indigo Method,” Water Research Vol. 15, pp. 449-456, 1981. APHA Standard Methods, 23rd ed., Method 4500-03 B-1997.

With the indigo method, indigo trisulfonate dye immediately reacts with ozone. The color of the blue dye decreases in intensity in proportion to the amount of ozone present in the sample. The test reagent is formulated with malonic acid to prevent interference from up to at least 10 ppm chlorine. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) O3.The CHEMetrics Indigo Ozone Vacu-vials® Kit employs an innovative “self-zeroing” feature to eliminate the need to generate a reagent blank. Each Vacu-vials® ampoule is measured before and after being snapped in sample. The change in color intensity, measured in absorbance, between reagent in the unsnapped and snapped ampoule is used to determine the ozone concentration of the sample.”

The indigo test kit can be purchased at the Oxidation Technologies web store. Indigo test kit.

The I-2022 Dissolved Ozone Meter is designed for accurately and quickly measuring ozone in water levels from 0 – 0.75 ppm. This device uses the Indigo Method for testing. This method is based on the colorization of dye by ozone, where the loss of color is directly proportional to the ozone concentration. The results are then displayed on the monitor in ppm (mg/L) of ozone present.

This device has LED display for precise and accurate readout and is easy to use. Once the I-2022 has been purchased the cost per test is only $1.02.

Next, use the dilute method to measure higher concentrations of ozone.


The Indigo snap method test kits will measure up to 0.75 so a dilute procedure can be used to derive an accurate measurement. The video uses the K-7404 kit which used the DPT method, but the principle can be applied to the Indigo kit as well.


Feel free to contact Oxidation Technolgies with any ozone questions.