New Product: The FIOX Water System

The FIOX iron removal filter oxidizes any dissolved iron in the water with oxygen and ozone. The oxygen is pulled in from ambient air and the ozone is generated on site with a small ozone generator. The oxidized iron is filtered out with the back washable sand filter. The I-OX filters utilize an air injection system to remove iron (ferrous or clear water), manganese, and sulfur from the water via both oxidation and filtration. Unlike other iron filter alternatives, I-OX technology is designed for use in a single tank and valve system configuration, reducing both acquisition and maintenance costs yet delivering years of trouble-free service. No chemical additives or air compressors are required for operation or regeneration with the I-OX filters advanced design.

How does the I-OX filter work? During system regeneration, an air pocket is created when air is drawn in through an injector located in the brine port. During service, untreated water passes through the air pocket oxidizing any iron, sulfur, and manganese. The particles are filtered out. Then the system’s regeneration cycle backwashes the bed and replaces the air pocket, allowing the process to begin again.

Principles of Operation 

The ozone component provides protection from the common problem of iron bacteria bio-film which will plug up iron filtration systems unless the bacteria are controlled. Ozone is an energized O3 form of oxygen which not only accelerates oxidation of iron, but also destroys bacteria in the process.

FIOX Tank Benefits

     -Protect appliances and fixtures from staining

     -Low-cost – only requiring periodic backwashing

-No filter changing – Low maintenance

     -High iron removal efficiency

     -Reduce hydrogen sulfide


     -Time-tested, hydraulically-balanced piston, seals and spacers control service flow and backwash

     -Non-corrosive, fiber-reinforced polymer construction

     -Electronic control

     -Environmental cover

     -Quick connect clip design

     -Keeps the time-of-day during a power outage to eliminate the need of a service call to set the clock

     -Corrosion free bypass valve

More information on the FIOX System can be found here.

Contact Us Today to speak with an industry expert about your ozone needs.

Product Spotlight: 5000BF Ozone Generator

5000BF Ozone Generator

The 5000BF Ozone Generator is capable of producing 7 g/hr of ozone from oxygen, or 1.8 g/hr of ozone from dry air. This generator is perfect for all kinds of applications, from personal use to industrial settings, as well as experimental testing. The compact design (6x12x17) and affordable pricing make it a great option for many different uses.

Key Features:

  • Great value in ozone generators
  • Air cooled ozone generator – no cooling water required
  • Adjustable ozone output 0-100%
  • Integrated oxygen/ozone flow meter
  • Integrated amp meter to show electrical discharge to cell
  • Benchmount with durable rubber isolation feet
  • High quality aluminum enclosoure
  • Compact size and easy to use
  • Corona discharge ozone generator cell


  • 7 g/hr ozone output from 3 LPM oxygen
  • 1.8 g/hr ozone output from 5 LPM dry air
  • 5 PSI pressure rating (can operate under light vacuum also)
  • Dimensions: 6-inch high x 12-inch wide x 17-inch depth
  • Weight: 8 lbs
  • Feed-gas: Dry air, or Oxygen

For more information, as well as purchasing options, Please Click Here

In this video, we used the MAX-5 Oxygen Concentrator to supply our feed gas, Please Click Here to view all of our Oxygen Generators.

Ozone Mass Transfer – What is so Important?

Having the proper ozone equipment is only part of the solution. Ozone is a gas and is generated in situ. Making sure that this ozone gas is transferred into a liquid and then mixed properly is very important. This process is known as ozone mass transfer.

Making sure that the ozone is properly dissolved and allowed a complete chemical reaction of the gas is how to ensure a reliable ozone mass transfer. Most failures of ozone applications are the results of faulty ozone mass transfers.

The Solubility of Ozone and Importance of Choosing Correct Mass Transfer Devices

Temperature has an effect on the different solubility of ozone. Ozone is able to dissolve more and easier in cooler water. Because of this, ozone doses for the for the same applications will differ from country to country. When a proper ozone mass transfer is conducted, it will enhance the solubility levels of ozone, thereby ensuring required actions of ozone. A list of simple mass transfer devices are:

1) Hydro injector/ venturi/ eductors

2) Diffusers

3) Static mixers

4) Mass multipliers

5) Combination of the above

Venturis: These devices use high water pressure to suck the ozone into the water. They achieve at least 90-95% efficiency because of their design. The pump required has to be sized properly, or there will be ozone leakages.

Diffusers: These are devices that bubble ozone across water in order to diffuse it into the water. They work under normal water pressure. The number of diffusers needed will be determined by the volume of air, and surface area of the contact tank. Diffusions requires a minimum bubbling height of 5-6 meters for maximum efficacy. Some problems that arise from diffusing is the channeling of bubbles, and inadequate gas liquid contact. Because the diffusers is always in contact with high concentration ozone, it is important that the diffuser is made of the right material. SS or ceramic diffusers are the most preferred materials. For waters with high turbidity, diffusers are not recommended. Ozone destructors are also needed for the destruction of any unused ozone.

Static Mixers: These are devices placed in a pipe that are always used in conjunction with venturis. If used after venturi injections, they increase the ozone mass transfer. The material of construction is also very important here as well. SS 316 are normally used.

Mass Multipliers: These are devices that are placed in pips that discharge water mixed with ozone under high pressure into the water. They are normally used for large applications and in conjunction with venturis. Mass Multipliers are normally made of Kynar plastics.

Combination of Devices: A combination of mass transfer devices are often used. Combinations work efficiently and will guarantee higher percentage of mass transfer. However, in larger applications, it can also increase the cost it takes for mass transfer. This is something that is very important to keep in mind when planning your method of mass transfer.

Other factors that determine the efficiency of the ozone mass transfer are:

1) pH of the water: needs to be between 7-8 pH.

2) Temperature of the water: the higher the temperature the less the ozone will dissolve.

3) The concentration at which the ozone is used. The higher the concentration, the more ozone will dissolve.

4) The pressure: ozone mass transfer under pressure is recommended and this can reduce ozone dose, since efficiency is very high.

5) The design of the contact tank: ensures that the diffused ozone is efficiently mixed in the water.

Other Forms of Ozone Mass Transfer: There are also some unconventional types of ozone mass transfer that can be used with equal efficacy. U Tube devices are one of these methods. U Tubes have water that is forced into the tube under pressure and the water mixes within the pipelines when the direction of the water if forcibly changed. Essentially, it is like using a diffuser system under pressure. A U Tube system that is designed properly can have an efficiency of over 95%.

Ozone Uses in Odor Control

The Problem Today

Awareness is growing for a variety of hazardous airborne microbes such as mold, fungi, bacteria and viruses found within the indoor environment. Exposure to these microbes can occur in a variety of indoor settings such as residences, office buildings, hospitals, airplanes, and medical and dental offices. High levels of microbes can also be found in most enclosed locations where people gather such as schools, theatres, restaurants, etc.

The average person spends approximately 90% of their time indoors. This can increase their risk of health more than the outdoors.

Medical research linked Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to numerous allergies, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease and cancer. In addition to this, there are many less severe symptoms and diseases such as congestion, coughing, dermatitis, dry throat, headaches, eye irritation and viral infections that also reduce your well-being and health.

A reduction in fresh air supply in most buildings have a negative side effect of withholding pollutants inside the building. Reductions may be used to conserve air conditioning cooling costs. This affects the health in both short and long term for the occupants of the buildings.


Most odoriferous (aromatic) substances are all organic compounds conjugated linkages which are easily attacked by ozone.

Ozone is particularly useful in odor control in the following areas:

  • Smoke Odor Removal: Hotel rooms after heavy smoking or parties, cleaners, painting and decorating operations, new carpets.
  • Buildings: Air recirculation systems, effectively stops algae, fungus and bacteria formation, saves maintenance expenses, cuts down the amount of air needed. It also saves fuel expense.
  • Apartments: Destroys smelly food and other odors from various apartments, kills odors of garbage rooms and deodorizes party rooms. Most effective in removing odors in all types of ventilated office and buildings.
  • Beauty Parlors: Destroys odors of hair sprays, nail polish, perms, etc. Keeps air fresh.
  • Super Market Stores: To keep air fresh all the time. Ideal for meat preparation areas, meat and vegetable coolers, fresh fish areas, etc.
  • Department Stores: Store smells nice and fresh when opened in the morning.
  • Banks: Vault areas, storage areas, central ventilating areas, etc.
  • Hospitals: Chronic care rooms ICU & ICCU, cancer rooms, laundries, food preparation area, garbage rooms, operation theatres, and wards, etc.
  • Forensic Centers: Morgue rooms, autopsy rooms, laboratory exhaust systems, etc.
  • Pet Hospitals: Removal of stench of animal excreta and odors.
  • Process Areas: Removes odor from process areas especially in the sea food industry chemical factory, and to maintain sterile areas in pharmaceutical process areas, electronic industries, etc.

Advantages of Ozone in Air Treatment

  • Cleans and disinfects air.
  • Biological air contaminants are destroyed.
  • Effective against microbes, endo toxins, VOCs and organic odors.
  • No toxic chemicals need be employed.

To see Oxidation Technologies wide variety of ozone generators, please click here!

Corona vs. UV Ozone

Many users of ozone are made to believe that it will help in every scenario. Ozone chemistry is often totally ignored. UV Ozone, in India, is often recommended for water disinfection, when in reality, ozone offers no benefits in water treatment. Benefits, not the cost, should be the only criteria for selection.

Ozone is a very good disinfectant and many people know it by that. However, the benefits and effectiveness of ozone will depend on the method of ozone generation.

Primarily, there are two ways of producing ozone:

-Ozone using UV lamps

-Ozone by the Corona discharge method

Role of Ozonation

The purpose of ozone is both to perform oxidation, as well as disinfection (oxidation to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, and disinfection to kill bacteria, etc).

Regardless of how much ozone is generated per hour, a minimum concentration of at least 1% is required for both oxidation and disinfection. UV ozone generators cannot perform oxidation and disinfection at the same time at this concentration.

Concentration of Ozone

CD ozone generators can produce ozone at a concentration ranging from 1-16% w/w, compared to 0.1-0.001% w/w by UV ozone. This means that CD ozone generators can produce at concentration from 10 to 1000 times higher than that of UV ozone. The amount of air needed for UV ozone generators is 10 times more than what is needed for a CD ozone generator.

UV Lamps Used

A majority of UV ozone generators will use 454 manometers (nm) radiation. 89% of relative spectral energy of UV lamps are at 254 nm, and low of 218 nm. The maximum production of UV ozone happens at 260-265 nm. Therefore, by using 254 nm UV bulbs, it is impossible to produce more than just traces of ozone.

Mechanism of Action

That is the most important difference between UV ozone generation and CD ozone generation. Ozone generated by UV ozone is immediately decomposed by the UV radiation, which then forms free hydroxyl radicals. In aqueous ozone solutions, these free radicals (OH+) can be very powerful oxidizing agents. However, the disadvantage to these free radicals is that their half-life is around microseconds, and compared to 22 minutes of ozone. Because of this, ozone that is generated by the UV method, cannot be expected to remain in the solution for a sufficient period of time that allows adequate disinfection, even though chemical oxidation can occur.

Recently, UV ozone has started using 172 nm bulbs. These bulbs produce a higher concentration of ozone, but the bulbs themselves have not been commercially available or tested yet.

Why Concentration of Ozone is Significant?

There is only a partial solubility of ozone in water that is governed by Henry’s Law (the solubility of the gas in water is directly proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase). Because of Henry’s Law, the higher the ozone concentration means the greater the solubility into water. The more ozone that is dissolved into water, the more effective it can be as a disinfectant. Through research and studies, it is clear that through UV radiation, there is not much ozone available in the water for both oxidation and disinfection.

Chicks Law Factor

The process in which ozone disinfects is governed by Chick’s Law. This law follows the Contact Time factor. For each strain of bacteria/virus, ozone has different contact times needed to kill that strain. Contact time needs to be controlled or maintained in order for the full benefits of ozone disinfecting to work. Just like antibiotics, each particular antibiotic needs a certain amount of time for it to work effectively. For ozone disinfecting to work, there needs to be enough contact time for it to do its job properly. The most important factors in ozone disinfection are concentration and time, both are not achievable with UV ozone generation.

Ozone can more easily destroy air-borne bacteria and viruses rather than water borne organisms. That is why the ozone requirement for air treatment is so low. That is another reason that UV ozone is only used in air treatment – high concentrations of ozone are not required for disinfecting. Ozone only has to spread in the air in order to work effectively, whereas in water ozone needs to first be dissolved in order to work.

To view all of our ozone generators, please click here.

Product Spotlight: VMUS-4

VMUS-4 Ozone Generator

With the VMUS-4 Corona Cell recently being added to our website, it is a great time to take a look at the specs and features of the VMUS-4 Ozone Generator.

The VMUS-4 is an ozone generator can produce ozone from dry air, or oxygen feed gas.  Either vacuum operation or pressure works fine for the ozone generator cell.  Air cooled operation allows for use in a multitude of applications without the dilemma of cooling water.  With the smaller size and secure ozone production, the VMUS-4 is a great value in ozone generators! The VMUS-4 is a wall mountable Ozone generator which produces up to 10 g/hr of ozone @ 4 l/min of oxygen at over 3% by weight. Higher ozone concentrations are possible at lower oxygen flow rates. At 1 LPM the VMUS-4 produces ozone at 5.3% by weight. For full details on ozone generator performance view our performance chart. This generator uses corona discharge technology. The corona cell in the VMUS-4 uses a true quartz dielectric in a stainless-steel shell. This technology offers maximum reliability and ability for future repairs if ever necessary. Every component on the VMUS-4 is replaceable or repairable for long-term operation in your facility. 

Key Features:

  • Produces Up to 10 g/hr ozone efficiently
  • Capable of also producing 4 g/hr ozone from dry air
  • Wall mountable
  • Flow meter is standard
  • Adjustable output Standard
  • Flow Switch Standard
  • Detachable power cord
  • Easy to install and operate
  • Powder coated Al. cabinet
  • Can operate under pressure or vacuum
  • Circuit protection equipped
  • Rebuildable ozone generator corona cell
  • 120 or 220 VAC power, 50/60 Hz capability standard

Different Options

4-20 mA input control – control output of ozone generator from 0-100% via a 4-20 mA input.  Additional information on this in the adjustable ozone output section below.

External ON/OFF control – turn ozone generator ON/OFF via dry contacts from remote location.  Useful for system integration where some automation is required.

Internal air pump – small air-pump can be built into the VMUS-4 to push air through the ozone generator.  This is useful when the VMUS-4 is used with an air dryer to produce ozone and a motive flow source is required.  Such as, a bubble diffuser at the bottom of a water tank.

Disable Flow Switch – option to disable the integrated flow switch.  Useful for low-flow applications, where ozone production at flows below 1 LPM are required.

Integrated Flow switch

The VMUS-4 uses an integrated flow switch for simple and reliable automation. This switch will turn the ozone generator ON when feed-gas flow rises above about 1.5 LPM, and turn the ozone generator OFF when feed-gas flow drops below about 1 LPM. This provides some simple automation for your ozone system. When used with a simple venturi injector the VMUS-4 will turn ON and OFF automatically based on suction from the venturi. When used with an oxygen generator the VMUS-4 will turn ON and OFF automatically when flow starts or stops from the oxygen generator. This feature eliminates the need for external wiring or flow/pressure switches.

When the ozone generator is turned OFF due to no flow, the No Flow light illuminates indicating this. When the flow is present this No Flow light will go out, and the blue Ozone light will illuminate, indicating ozone is now produced. This flow switch can be disabled by choosing the “Disable flow-switch” option when purchasing.  There is no cost difference on this option.

Adjustable Ozone Output

The VMUS-4 uses a digital adjustable ozone output shown in the image above. This will allow setting the ozone output from 0-100% using the rocker switch. Green status lights will show the current power setting of the ozone generator clearly and easily. The ozone output can also be adjusted while the ozone generator is in a No Flow status and not producing ozone.

Ozone output can also be adjusted via 4-20 mA input.  This allows adjustment of ozone output via a PLC or another device for automated operation.  When this option is chosen the keypad is overridden as long as the 4-20 mA is connected, if the connection is terminated the keypad is functional again.  Ozone output is displayed via the green LED indicators on the touchpad with the 4-20 mA input or the pushbuttons.

Circuit Protection

The VMUS-4 uses a sophisticated power inverter board that will protect the corona cell and/or transformer against failure. In the event, the corona cell does become contaminated with moisture, or dust the inverter will turn OFF ozone production immediately to protect against damage. Every 6 seconds this inverter will attempt to produce ozone and will restart automatically when conditions improve. While we hope our customers never flood, or contaminated the ozone generator corona cell, we know this is a possibility, this circuit protection will prevent potentially costly repairs.

Rebuild-able Corona Cell

The VMUS-4 corona cell is completely rebuildable. The Quarts dielectric can be removed from the stainless-steel shell and be cleaned, or replaced if necessary. We know that air dryers, oxygen concentrators, and check valves can fail. Therefore, we provide an easily rebuild-able corona cell so that these external failures do not have to be fatal to your ozone generator. The VMUS-4 Corona cell consists of very few components. The Stainless shell and quartz dielectric are the main components.  Each end is sealed with a Kynar end cap that has the fitting molded in (fewer leak points) with a Viton O-ring and Kynar sealing ring.  We stock and sell all replacement and repair parts for the VMUS-4 ozone generator.  Therefore, you can be confident that no matter what happens your ozone generator will be repairable.

Water disinfection with ozone gains traction

While chlorine and ultraviolet light are the standard means of disinfecting water, ozone is equally effective in killing germs. To date, ozone has only been used as an oxidation agent for treating water in large plants. Now, however, a project consortium from Schleswig-Holstein is developing a miniaturized ozone generator for use in smaller applications such as water dispensers or small domestic appliances. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT has provided the sensor chip and electrode substrates for the electrolysis cell.

Compared to conventional means of disinfection such as chlorine or ultraviolet, ozone dissolved in water has a number of advantages: it is environmentally friendly, remains active beyond its immediate place of origin, has only a short retention time in water and is subsequently tasteless. Due to its high oxidation potential, ozone is very effective at combating germs. It breaks down the cell membrane of common pathogens. In Germany, ozone is chiefly used to disinfect swimming pools and drinking water and to purify wastewater. Yet it is rarely used to disinfect water in domestic appliances such as ice machines and beverage dispensers or in other fixtures such as shower-toilets. MIKROOZON, a project funded by the State of Schleswig-Holstein and the EU, aims to change this. Researchers from Fraunhofer ISIT have teamed up with the Itzehoe-based company CONDIAS GmbH, which was founded in 2001 as a spin-off from the Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, and CONDIAS partner Go Systemelektronik GmbH, from Kiel. The three partners are developing a miniaturized ozone generator with integrated sensor technology and microprocessor control system.

Direct production of ozone via water electrolysis
“The ozone generator is very compact and can be integrated in systems and appliances that require regular disinfection,” says Norman Laske, researcher at Fraunhofer ISIT. “You simply connect it up to the water line, and it will produce the right amount of ozonized water whenever required.” The ozone generator is only a couple of cubic centimeters in size and comprises an electrolysis cell, a sensor chip, control electronics to regulate current and voltage, and electronics to read the sensor signals. “The two electrodes are separated by an ion-conducting separator membrane,” Laske explains. “When a voltage is applied across the electrodes, the water is split by a process of electrolysis. Because of the diamond layer coating the electrodes, this process first forms hydroxyl radicals, which then react to form primarily ozone (O3) as well as oxygen (O2).”

The electrodes for the ozone generator are made of silicon wafers with precisely etched trenches.

The electrodes for the ozone generator are made of silicon wafers with precisely etched trenches. Credit: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

Diamond-coated silicon electrodes
How the electrodes with their boron-doped diamond layer are made is the know-how that has given CONDIAS GmbH its name. The company already uses a chemical vapor deposition process to coat large-scale electrodes required to disinfect the ballast water of marine vessels. However, the electrodes required for the MIKROOZON generator are much smaller. They are made of silicon and have finely etched trenches that run through the electrodes to form narrow slits on the reverse side. In order to be able to etch these trenches with the required precision, the researchers from Fraunhofer ISIT had to have wafer material manufactured to their own specifications.

To build an ozone generator, pairs of these electrodes are mounted back to back, with a separator membrane between them. The gases are released at the interface to the separator membrane and then escape through the trenched structure to the other side of the electrode, where the turbulence of the water flow ensures that they are efficiently dissolved and dispersed.

The sensor chip from Fraunhofer ISIT is equipped with three sensors to measure conductivity, mass flow and temperature. These parameters need to be monitored in order to control the electrolytic process. The sensor chip provides the data that is required to control ozone production in line with the quality and the amount of water used. “In order to ensure that there is enough ozone available over the period required, the temperature has to be monitored,” Laske explains. “This is because ozone decomposes more quickly at higher temperatures.” Conductivity correlates to the degree of water hardness: the harder the water, the higher the conductivity—meaning that more current must flow in order to achieve the desired effect. When equipped with a system to monitor these parameters, the ozone generator should be capable of processing up to 6 liters of water per minute—without the sensor chip, it is currently specified for 0.5 to 1.5 liters.

CONDIAS is marketing the mini-generator under the brand name of MIKROZON. “Each partner has contributed years of experience from their own area of specialization,” says Volker Hollinder, CEO of CONDIAS GmbH. “This has created a product that can now be manufactured on an industrial scale. The spread of the coronavirus has underlined the importance of disinfection. The use of chemical disinfectants is often problematic, because they leave harmful residues. Our system uses electrolytically generated ozone to eliminate germs. It therefore does not produce any residues from disinfectants.”

Source:  Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

The Terribly Fresh Smell of Ozone

Our noses have snuffed up the fresh smell after a thunderstorm, clean laundry, and well-aerated water ever since creation; but we were not aware that a simple combination of three oxygen atoms was responsible for these delightful odors until Christian Friedrich Schönbein zeroed in on this fact in the later 1800’s. The peculiar odor was noted by the Dutch scientist Van Muram in 1801 when he ran his electrostatic generators. He called it “the smell of electricity.” Schönbein’s experiments with electrolysis also generated some ozone. Although this odor was not the focus of his studies, he could not resist investigating the source of this smell. He felt close enough to finding this substance to give it a name. For this he turned to the language of the insightful and descriptive Greeks.

Scanning through the various forms of “smell” in a good Greek dictionary for a suitable name, he came across the verb form ὄζω which sounds like “odzo” and translates “I smell” as in, “I smell the rain.” The root word in Greek for smell is ” ὀδ” from which the English word “odor” is derived. Typically you read that the word “ozone” comes from the infinitive form ὄζειν “to smell,” but I would like to suggest he was attracted to the genitive form “ὄζων” which sounds most like the German “ozon” and the English “ozone.” The genitive form is used to express the idea of source, and is used in Greek texts to mean “that from which the smell comes.”

“Ozone.” The word fit well. The ancient Greek poet Homer, reciting his epic poem “The Iliad” about 1000 years before Christ said,

“As an oak falls headlong when uprooted by the lightning flash of God,
And there is the terrible ozone of brimstone –
No man can help being dismayed if he is standing near it
For a thunderbolt is a very awful thing –
Even so did Hector fall to earth and bite the dust.
Homer, The Illiad, Book XIV

Here Homer connects the odor of ozone with lightning and its awful power. Instead of translating the Greek word “ὄζων” as “smell”, I have simply transliterated the sound of the Greek word directly to “ozone.” Schönbein’s name for this substance was an excellent choice, having a few thousand years of historical precedent for naming this important molecule.

A variety of careful observations about the circumstances of ozone production and its effect on other substances brought Schonbein closer to understanding the precise composition of ozone. Eventually in 1865 another man, Jacques-Louis Soret, determined the precise formula for ozone as O3. Experiments with ozone exposed some of the harmful effects of high ozone levels to plant and animal health, but also led to the realization that ozone could be used to disinfect polluted water. It became clear that with proper use, ozone could be a powerful tool for healthy living. The fresh, invigorating, clean smell of a tiny pinch of ozone is our hint to ozone’s helpful qualities.

A little dose of bright sunshine on our skin is good for the body. It is healthy and we are attracted to it, but too much can burn and cause harm. So it is with ozone. Just like fire or electricity, its power must be respected and put to precise and careful use. We need a gentle flow of electrons through our nervous system to think and direct our bodies, but need protection from the power of electricity in the world around us.

How much is too much? At about the time the smell of ozone becomes distinctive, it is time to be aware of its source and the potential for dangerous levels of ozone. With an increase in concentration, it turns quickly to a pungent suffocating smell. At that point it is time to limit breathing exposure to avoid oxidation of sensitive lung tissue. Only a good quality ozone sensor that is up to date with calibration will give accurate measurements of ozone levels. OSHA requires that workers not be exposed to ozone levels over 0.1 ppm ozone over the course of 8 hours.

Ozone as the “smell of electricity” could also be described as “the smell of energy.” Ozone is oxygen that has been infused with a tremendous amount of energy. When that energy is released, it causes physical damage to small sensitive things like bacteria, viruses, and sensitive lung tissue. The fresh smell of ozone after a thunderstorm is our reminder that big powerful things are happening to bring refreshing rain. A hint of ozone smell in a water bottling plant can make you confident that the water is free of harmful pathogens.

Ozone is a very valuable form of oxidizing energy with countless uses. Dissolved in water, ozone retains its power to disinfect, but does not come into contact with the sensitive tissue of your lungs. It is safe to handle ozonated water provided any ozone off-gassing is limited or safely removed. Dissolved ozone is like electricity in a shielded wire where it is safe and useful. Those who build and operate machines that harness the power of ozone must understand and respect the power of ozone as well as the rules and regulations that have been put in place for the safe use of ozone.

How to Dismember Corona Virus with Ozone

Given the mountain of evidence that ozone is a quick and effective destroyer of viruses and bacteria, why is there so much hesitation to champion ozone as a key weapon against the spread of Covid 19? The EPA has a list of 478 different products and 30 active ingredients that officially kill the Covid virus, but ozone is nowhere to be found in the list. The closest thing to ozone that is on the list is hydrogen peroxide. Have all these products actually been applied to the virus and proven to destroy or inactivate it? How can you tell if a virus is dead or inactive? Given what we are gradually learning about the virus, how it spreads, and how it infects our bodies, how effective are these disinfectants in preventing infection?

Dr. Chedly Tizaoui, a professor of chemical engineering at Swansee University has taken a rather novel approach in an attempt to answer some of these questions. Instead of conducting statistical analysis of thousands of people or trying to count dead viruses after applying a particular disinfectant, Dr. Tizaoui has applied molecular modeling to evaluate the effect of ozone on the molecular structures the virus. He shares his results in the International Ozone Association research journal “Ozone: Science and Engineering”

Molecular modeling is an especially useful tool for studying viruses because viruses are so small they can’t be seen with a standard light microscope. Their shape and structures are defined on a molecular level, so understanding the types of molecules making up their structure allows us to make an accurate model. The model not only evaluates the shape and function of corona virus anatomy, but it also evaluates the bonds holding these molecules together. Understanding the relationships between these molecules and how they function together to make the Corona Virus so sucessful provides important insight in the weaknesses and vulnerabilities of the virus.

We may not yet know all the complex interactions of the virus with people, or exactly how the virus infects, but we do have a pretty clear understanding of the molecular structure of the virus. It is also clear that the unique shape and structure of the molecular structures on the outer shell play a key role in the success of the virus. Molecular modeling is a tool that helps us see how this structure is altered when a molecule like ozone comes into contact with it.

Ozone is like a molecular hand grenade in the virus world and has the power to change the shape of the virus’s “arms” and disable them. Various kinds of molecules behave and react in predictable ways making it possible to use molecular modeling to study what happens when something like ozone molecules interacts with the structures on a virus.

Ozone is an exciting molecule to model because it packs a lot of energy. The molecule is very sensitive and quick to unload its energy on nearby molecules. It has a very positive 100 year track record for effectively destroying viruses and bacteria. The water treatment industry has grown to appreciate the value of ozone for destroying pathogens in water. The food industry is also learning how to harness its power for sanitation and shelf life extension. Ozone has also been used extensively in medical treatment, but faces an uphill battle against the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

After applying the science of molecular modeling to Corona Virus anatomy and ozone, Dr. Tizaoui concludes, “The results show that ozone is able to attack the proteins and lipids of the virus’s spikes and envelope, particularly the amino acids tryptophan, methionine and cysteine, and the fatty acids,varachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. Ozone also attacks the N-glycopeptides of the spike protein subunits 1 and 2, though at lower reactivity. Disruption of the structure of SARS-CoV-2 could inactivate the virus, suggesting that ozone could be an effective oxidant against COVID-19 virus.”

Thank you, Dr. Tizaoui, for sharing this research. Now it’s our job to safely get the ozone where it needs to be to do its work.

Ozone for Iron Removal

Thought I would share my quarterly maintenance report for an ozone iron removal system serving a hog farrowing operation. Iron in the water had been causing high maintenance costs on the power washing equipment used to maintain a sanitary environment. We sized an ozone well water treatment system to remove the measured iron levels at a rate of 20 gallons per minute. The system injects ozone with a venturi, circulates it through a contact tank, and filters the oxidized iron with two sand filters. It has been running for a year and a half now and continues to provide excellent iron removal results. The picture shows two water filters, grey one with clay silt from the well water prior to entering the system. The red one is a post system filter to remove any iron the sand filters missed. I used the Chemetrics iron test kit we sell to verify results. The clear ampule reflects a post-filtration reading of 0.2 ppm total iron. The medium colored ones reflect a pre-treatment sample of 1 ppm iron. The dark-colored one was a test of the backflush water indicating what the sand filters are removing. Overall, the system is operating very well. I changed filters and check valves, measured system performance, and prepared a report for the customer. This summer the demand will be higher on the system, so I will try to get there a little before the next scheduled visit. Ozone can provide excellent results when properly applied and maintained. We are happy to provide quarterly maintenance to keep your ozone system operating at peak performance. Give us a call at 515 635-5854. We’d be happy to provide service for any ozone equipment on the market.