Ozone vs. Coronavirus: Ozone’s Efficacy as a Virucidal Disinfectant

Full Article HERE:


It’s no secret in the cleaning and disaster restoration industry that ozone is extremely effective at removing odors through molecular oxidation.  Lesser known is its efficacy as a disinfectant, for which it has been used effectively in the medical field for many years. A powerful gas capable of high levels of disinfection, ozone can be very effective at killing pathogenic bacteria and fungi, as well as for inactivating viruses. The focus of this article is the use of ozone as a virucide, with emphasis on the SARS-CoV-2, which, according to the International Committee on Taxonomy,  is the accurate name for what is commonly referred to as the COVID-19 coronavirus, and is how it will be referenced in this article.

What is a virus?

Quoting the National Institute of Health: “A virus is an infectious agent that occupies a place near the boundary between the living and the nonliving. It is a particle much smaller than a bacterial cell, consisting of a small genome of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses enter host cells and hijack the enzymes and materials of the host cells to make more copies of themselves. Viruses cause a wide variety of diseases in plants and animals, including AIDS, measles, smallpox, and polio”, and of course the various strains of coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2[1] .

They can enter the body through the nose, mouth or breaks in the skin.  Different viruses infect different types of cells based upon the ability of the virus to both recognize the host cell type and successfully enter the cells. Once inside (infection), virus genome is activated to produce the replication proteins necessary to create new virus particles, and the cycle is repeated.  For example, cold and flu viruses will attack cells that line the respiratory or digestive tracts. Norovirus, for example, invades the gastro-intestinal tract. The cells of the lungs and bronchi are targets for SARS-CoV-2.

Viruses can stay active on surfaces for different amounts of time, depending on the virus, the surface type, and the environment.  Cold viruses can remain active on surfaces for up to a week, while flu viruses can survive for about 24 hours, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains active for about 72 hours.  It’s during this time that the virus is quietly adherent to surfaces, waiting to be taken up by a passing host, that restorers have their opportunity to intervene.

Let’s set the record straight in regard to the correct language for destroying viruses before we “put ‘em in the ring” with ozone.  Depending on with whom you speak, you’ll hear somebody say they’re “killing the virus”.  Other common terms are deactivating and inactivating.

Which is correct?

As we’ve already discussed, viruses are not living organisms in the traditional sense – they are not made of cells, they cannot reproduce without invading a host cell, they do not respond to environmental stimuli, and they have no metabolism. Because a virus is not “alive” in the first place, it therefore cannot be “killed”.  References to killed virus in the medical literature refer to a technique where virus are chemically or mechanically inactivated so that they can be used in the production of vaccines or used in research without the possibility of causing infection, or in our case, to disinfect a surface or space. It is in this sense that we are using the term “inactivating”, where we are using ozone to chemically treat a virus so that it cannot infect living cells.

coronavirus germ

How does ozone inactivate viruses?

To address this question, I reached out to some of the most knowledgeable doctors on the topic of ozone and viruses in the country.  Dr. Gérard Sunnen is a medical doctor in New York City, specializing in the uses of ozone in the medical field, ranging from cutting-edge ozone therapy to the use of ozone as a disinfectant.  According to Dr. Sunnen. “Ozone has unique disinfectant properties. As a gas, it has a penetration capacity that liquids do not possess. In view of the fact that , SARS-CoV-2, MERS, and previous SARS strains persist on fomites (surfaces) for up to several days, it is suggested that ozone technology be applied to the decontamination of medical and other environments”.

Knowing that something works isn’t enough; let’s look at how ozone works at inactivating viruses.  “Typically, viruses are small, independent particles, built of crystals and macromolecules. Unlike bacteria, they multiply only within the host cell. Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the nucleic acid core, resulting in damage of the viral RNA. At higher concentrations, ozone destroys the capsid or exterior protein shell by oxidation” explains Dr. Sunnen.  Further, “most research efforts on ozone’s virucidal effects have centered upon ozone’s propensity to break apart lipid molecules at sites of multiple bond configuration. Indeed, once the lipid envelope of the virus is fragmented, its DNA or RNA core cannot survive”.

In my quest for further communication with experts in the field, I reached out to a director for the Center for Disease Control (CDC), Dr. Paul Meechan PhD, MPH, RPB, CBSP, SM(NRCM).  I asked him his thoughts on ozone as a virucide, especially in regard to SARS-CoV-2.  He responded, “Will ozone work- you betcha! Ozone is very effective at inactivating viruses, especially enveloped viruses like the SARS-CoV-2. Within seconds, ozone solubilizes the lipid membrane of the virus. Ozone will inactivate SARS-CoV-2, but you have to know what you’re doing.


How much ozone is required to be effective?

Log reduction is a mathematical term that is used to express the relative number of living microbes or active viruses that are eliminated by disinfection, and corresponds to inactivating 90% of a target microbe with the microbe count being reduced by a factor of 10. Thus, a 2 Log reduction will see a 99% reduction, or microbe reduction by a factor of 100, and so on. The table below shows the chart of Log reduction.

Log ReductionReduction FactorPercent Reduced

An easy way I remember this scale is that the number of nines is equal to the Log reduction number. For example, 1 Log = 90%, 3 Logs = 99.9, 5 Logs = 99.999, etc.

Depending on the virus targeted, concentration and exposure time varies. Considering the structure of SARS-CoV-2, and how like viruses respond to ozone exposure, it is estimated that as little as 1 ppm concentration for a matter of seconds is sufficient to achieve as much as 4 logs disinfection. A good quality ozone generator should have no problem reaching this concentration within a short period of time.

Ozone level output is key; generators are rated by the grams of ozone they generate per hour (g/hr). To test the time required to achieve 1 ppm concentration, we used RamAir’s OzoGen 16g, which has an output of 16 g/hr.  Our laboratory consisted of a 1000 ft.³ space, at 65° F and 14% RH (relative humidity).  The generator achieved .5 ppm in 15 seconds, and 1 ppm in < 2 minutes.  As ozone generators convert ambient oxygen into ozone by way of molecular fission and fusion, the rate of output slows as the concentration elevates, resulting from a continuous depletion of available O2 molecules in the enclosed space. Therefore, peak ozone generation is directly dependent on the power of the ozone generator, as lesser systems would plateau at a lower ozone concentration.  High power ozone generators also have the benefit of achieving effective concentrations more quickly, which allows for greater overall utility and benefit.  

David Hart, alongside a select team of doctors and scientists, is spearheading a rigorous testing program to acquire precise data on ozone’s inactivation of specific strains of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, in regard to concentration and exposure times.

To Summarize

Ozone, having been proven in the lab and in the field to be an extremely effective virucide and full-spectrum antimicrobial, killing pathogenic bacteria and fungi, offers many benefits over alternative ways of disinfecting.

Because it is a gas, it has a penetration capacity that liquids do not possess.  An ozone generator never needs to be refilled with solutions, and it doesn’t need to be manually operated; simply set the timer and press the button. The machine goes to work turning the oxygen in the ambient air into powerful, oxidizing ozone. You return after the prescribed period of time, and the disinfection is complete.

Updates to Aeroqual handheld Ozone Monitors

Aeroqual just updated the brochure on the handheld monitors.  Click link below for details and to review this brochure:


Handheld aeroqual monitor
Aeroqual handheld monitors

The Aeroqual handheld monitors recently have been updated with a new fascia label on the  Series 200, 300, and 500 portable monitors.  The new label blends seamlessly with the body of the monitor.  This offers a larger and clearer model number and the updated Aeroqual.

 updated aeroqual handheld monitors
Updated handheld fascia label

For more information on the Aeroqual monitors and ability to purchase online click link below:







Ozone Badges for Safety

For those short term applications we have starting carrying the SafeAir Ozone Badge for ozone detection.

Ozone detector card
Ozone SafeAir Badge – 382004-50

These ozone badges are used for worker safety in environments that may have elevated ozone levels.  Time weighted badges are used for intervals between 15 minutes and 48 hours (depending upon ozone levels).  As Osha regulates ozone exposure based on a a TWA (time weighted average) these badges are the perfect solution for short term worker safety.

Ozone badge for o3 detection
Ozone detector card

The SafeAir ozone badge is a monitoring system designed to indicate the presence of ozone at concentrations at the permissible exposure limit. The SafeAir ozone badge detects the presence of ozone by forming a color change in the shape of an triangle with an exclamation mark inside. This indication is produced by a color-forming reaction which occurs when ozone reacts with a flat indicator layer.


We have found many interesting applications for these badges.  Should you have an issue with other gasses that are cross-sensitive causing your HMOS, or electrochemical ozone sensor to provide inaccurate readings of ozone, the ozone badge can verify or at least ensure your workers are indeed safe.

We used these badges on a groundwater remediation site where in-situ ozone sparge wells were installed on the property of a personal residence.  The owner of the residence was concerned with ozone levels above ground.  At no time on-site was the operators of the ozone system able to detect ozone.  Placing an ozone badge on the front door of the residence daily proved that ozone levels were not unsafe, and were not occurring during evening hours.  This was a low cost way of ensuring human safety and resolving a PR issue.

Carbon Monoxide Health Risks

Gas Sensing Logo

Carbon Monoxide (CO), is often called the “Silent Killer” because of its ability to take lives quickly and quietly when its victims never even knew they were at risk. It is indetectable to humans, being both tasteless and odorless, and in high enough concentrations it can kill within minutes. But CO is not so silent if you read about its victims in the news. It already claims hundreds of lives each year, and survivors of CO poisoning can be left with psychological and neurological symptoms. Sadly, this toxic gas takes lives that could be saved through education, awareness, and simple protection. Read this article to make yourself aware of the risks that CO poses, and how to stay CO safe!

Pocket CO 300 with key
Pocket CO 300 Handheld Carbon Monoxide Detector

CO is a poisonous gas produced by the incomplete burning of carbon based fuels. When inhaled it deprives the blood stream of oxygen, suffocating its victim. No one is immune to the effects of CO, though children 14 and under are more likely to sustain poisoning than adults at lower levels. CO can cause immediate health problems, and even death, in high concentrations, and some suspect it can also cause long-term health problems in low concentrations if a person experiences regular exposure (such as at home, or in the workplace). Significant exposure to CO can also reduce life expectancy, as reported in a recent article of the Journal of the American Medicine Association.

Any gas or propane based engine will produce CO, meaning that boaters, truckers, and small aircraft pilots are at risk from CO fumes as soon as they start their vehicle. Homeowners suffer the most from CO poisoning, and are in danger from sources like gas-powered furnaces and water heaters, clogged fireplaces and chimneys, cars running in an attached garage, and burning of fuels indoors (such as a gas or charcoal grill).Travelers staying in hotels are in danger of CO poisoning as well, which can be leaked into a hotel room from nearby faulty heaters and boilers. To see examples of recent CO poisonings in all of these areas, and others, take a look at our news headlines page.

GasAlert Extreme CO (GAXT-M2-DL)
GasAlert handheld Carbon Monoxide Sensor

The beginning symptoms of CO poisoning are sometimes compared to the symptoms of food poisoning. Depending on the level of CO, and length of exposure, you may experience any one or more of the following symptoms:

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • weakness and clumsiness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • quick irregular heartbeat
  • chest pain
  • hearing loss
  • blurry vision
  • disorientation or confusion seizures

Most people have experienced some of these symptoms at one time or another, which doesn’t necessarily mean that CO poisoning caused them. However, regular occurence of any of these symptoms might be an indication of CO poisoning. For example, do you suffer from any of these symptoms on a regular basis, or always in the same place? For example, do you regularly get headaches after entering your home, or when operating your vehicle. Do your symptoms go away when you leave the house or your vehicle? Have several members in your house been complaining of the same symptoms? If the answer to any of these questions is ‘yes’, then you might be suffering from the effects of CO exposure. But symptoms and problems don’t just appear when a person is exposed to high levels of CO. Even low-level CO concentrations can cause health problems if a person is exposed to them for long periods of time on a regular basis. This excerpt from an article published by the EPA explains why:

The health threat from lower levels of CO is most serious for those who suffer from heart disease, like angina, clogged arteries, or congestive heart failure. For a person with heart disease, a single exposure to CO at low levels may cause chest pain and reduce that person’s ability to exercise; repeated exposures may contribute to other cardiovascular effects.

Series-930 controller
Wall mount Aeroqual S-930 Carbon Monoxide Sensor with audible and visual alarm

Ultimately, the best way to determine if you are being exposed to CO in your environment, particulary in low-levels, is with a CO detector. Large, wall-socket CO detectors sold in hardware and drug stores may protect you from a high-level leak of CO in your home. Generally though, these detectors do not alarm at low-levels of CO, and also offer no way to measure the actual concentration. Also, to avoid false alarms, such detectors require several continuous minutes of exposure at high-levels before alarming. But by this time, you may already be suffering from the effects of CO poisoning – disoriented, sick, and wondering what is going on. Such home detectors also give you no way to test that they are still working. Don’t be fooled by the “Push to Test” buttons on these detectors.This button tests the audible alarm, but typically doesn’t check if the actual CO sensing element is still functioning. A better way to stay safe, both at home and when away, is with a portable CO monitor that has a digital readout. This allows you to monitor levels anywhere in your environment, no matter where you are. It also gives you the ability to routinely test the detector with a small source of CO (like a blown-out paper match, or CO bump kit). Learn more about the Pocket CO portable detector/dosimeter, a way to keep you and your family CO safe!

C16 Sensor in Hand
C16 Carbon Monoxide leak detector with data logging.

The level of CO concentration is measured using a system called Parts Per Million (PPM). For example, 100 PPM CO means that for every 999,900 molecules of air, there are 100 molecules of CO. CO effects people differently depending on the concentration. In addition to measuring the current level of CO concentration, another measurement used is the Time-Weighted Average (TWA). This measures your average exposure to CO over time, and is also measured in PPM. For example, if you were exposed to a large dose of CO in the begining of the day, but none afterwards, your TWA for the day would be low, since for most of the day you had no exposure. If, however, you are continually exposed to 20 PPM CO throughout the day, your TWA for the day will be 20 PPM.

The table below summarizes some health effects due to prolonged exposure to various concentrations of CO, as well as some government recommended limits, and Pocket CO alarm levels. It has been compiled from various sources, including the NFPA:

Level of CO Health Effects, and Other Information
0 PPM Normal, fresh air.
9 PPM Maximum recommended indoor CO level (ASHRAE).
10-24 PPM Possible health effects with long-term exposure.
25 PPM Max TWA Exposure for 8 hour work-day (ACGIH).
Pocket CO TWA warning sounds each hour.
50 PPM Maximum permissible exposure in workplace (OSHA).
First Pocket CO ALARM starts (optional, every 20 seconds).
100 PPM Slight headache after 1-2 hours.
125 PPM Second Pocket CO ALARM starts (every 10 seconds).
200 PPM Dizziness, naseau, fagitue, headache after 2-3 hours of exposure.
400 PPM Headache and nausea after 1-2 hours of exposure.
Life threatening in 3 hours.
Third Pocket CO ALARM starts (every 5 seconds).
800 PPM Headache, nausea, and dizziness after 45 minutes; collapse and unconsciousness after 1 hour of exposure.
Death within 2-3 hours.
1000 PPM Loss of consciousness after 1 hour of exposure.
1600 PPM Headache, nausea, and dizziness after 20 minutes of exposure.
Death within 1-2 hours.
3200 PPM Headache, nausea, and dizziness after 5-10 minutes; collapse and unconsciousness after 30 minutes of exposure.
Death within 1 hour.
6400 PPM Death within 30 minutes.
12,800 PPM Immediate physiological effects, unconsciousness.
Death within 1-3 minutes of exposure.

There are many CO exposure limits set by government organizations. For a detailed listing, click here. The American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) lists a maximum allowable short term limit of 9 PPM. And the EPA has set two national health protection standards for CO: a one-hour TWA of 35 PPM, and an eight-hour TWA of 9 PPM. These standards make it clear that any carbon monoxide reading over 9 PPM should be investigated and acted upon.

Aeroqual R13 Remote Sensor Head Adapter
Aeroqual Series-500 Carbon Monoxide detector – configurable with many options.

Motorboats can release CO at very high concentrations. The CO can accumulate in and around the boat when idling, and can even be dragged behind the boat in what’s known as the “station wagon effect”. Learn more about CO safe boating.

CO on houseboats can be released not only by the motor, but also by the onboard generator. Many deaths have occured on houseboats due to CO accumulating in cabins, and in areas around (and under) the boat where children often swim. Learn more about CO safe boating.

Small aircraft pilots are susceptible to CO leaking into the cabin from the engine. Such leaks could be at low concentrations, but over long periods of exposure they could cause heath problems.

Because of their long drives and therefore long exposure periods, truckers are especially vulnerable to low-level CO leaks in the cab. Such leaks can put their lives at risk, as well as the lives of others on the road.

Many people have been sickened, and some have even died, due to CO poisoning at motels and hotels. CO can leak into a traveler’s room from nearby leaky furnaces and hot water heaters. Despite this risk, most hotels do not have CO detectors installed.

The largest group that suffers from CO poisonings are homeowners. CO can accumulate in a home from faulty gas-powered furnaces and water heaters, clogged fireplaces and chimneys, wood burning stoves, running cars in attached garages, and any burning of fuels indoors (such as a grill). Also, some homes or businesses located next to multi-lane, busy streets or highways, can have low-levels of CO present much of the time.

The Pocket CODetector/Dosimeter, can protect your and your family from dangerous levels of CO anywhere. Its loud alarm and bright red light will warn you of dangerously high levels. It is simple to use, weighs less than an ounce, and fits on a key chain. Also, Pocket CO’s digital readout allows you to monitor even low levels of CO.

Real-time Measurement of NO2

A great case study on the use of the Aeroqual Series-500 was done by the University of Birmingham to evaluate No2 levels real-time in cities.

Due to the portability of the Series-500, and the low level accuracy of the NO2 sensor head, along with data logging the researchers were able to record data in various locations throughout the city quickly and efficiently to determine small areas of dangerous NO2 levels.

The Series-500 was invaluable as it portable, lightweight, and can record data quickly and for long periods of time.

Read entire case study below:

No2 Measuruement real-time with Series-500 Monitor

Series-500 monitor can measure a wide variety of gasses
Series-500 is available with a wide variety of sensor heads

Also available today is a dual sensor NO2 + O3 in the Series-500.  This will allow for simultaneous data logging of NO2 and O3.  If used with the optional temp and RH meter the Series-500 would be capable of logging data from the NO2, O3, Temp, and RH sensors showing a relationship between the gasses and ambient conditions.

Aeroqual Dual Gas Sensor, NO2 and O3
Dual O3 + NO2 Gas sensor for Aeroqual handheld monitors

Evaluation of the Series-500 for O3 and NO2 measurements

A recent white paper was published by Atmospheric Environment on the use of the Series-500 for accurate measurements of NO2 and Ozone gasses.  This paper can be viewed at the link below in full.

White paper  – Evaluation and Calibration of Aeroqual series 500 portable gas sensors for accurate measurement of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide

Series-500 monitor can measure a wide variety of gasses
Series-500 is available with a wide variety of sensor heads

The Aeroqual Series-500 has become a great monitor for portable gas detection, and accurate gas detection for toxic gas measurement.  As the cost of GSS type sensors is much lower than traditional UV analyzers the industry has been slow to adopt the Series-500 and accept the use.  However, case studies, and white papers show again and again that the Series-500 has a place in environmental monitoring.

Low-power, and relatively low-cost, gas sensors have potential to improve  understanding of intra-urban air pollution variation by enabling data capture over wider networks than is possible with traditional reference analysers. We evaluated an Aeroqual Ltd. Series 500 semiconducting metal oxide O3 and an electrochemical NO2 sensor against UK national network reference analysers for more than 2 months at an urban background site in central Edinburgh. Hourly-average Aeroqual O3 sensor observations were highly correlated (R2 = 0.91) and of similar magnitude to observations from the UV-absorption reference O3 analyser. The Aeroqual NO2 sensor observations correlated poorly with the reference chem-iluminescence NO2 analyser (R2=0.02), but the deviations between Aeroqual and reference analyser values ([NO2] Aeroq [NO2] ref) were highly significantly correlated with concurrent Aeroqual O3 sensor observations [O3] Aeroq. This permitted effective linear calibration of the [NO2] Aeroq data, evaluated using hold out subsets of the data (R20.85). These field observations under temperate environmental conditions suggest that the Aeroqual Series 500 NO2 and O3 monitors have good potential to be useful ambient air monitoring instruments in urban environments provided that the O3 and NO2 gas sensors are calibrated against reference analysers and deployed in parallel
Read full article at link below:

White paper  – Evaluation and Calibration of Aeroqual series 500 portable gas sensors for accurate measurement of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide

The Series-500 now is available with a dual NO2 and O3 sensor head to make measurement of NO2 and O3 simple.  With the data logging features the Series-500 is a valuable tool in environmental monitoring.

Aeroqual Dual Gas Sensor, NO2 and O3
Dual O3 + NO2 Gas sensor for Aeroqual handheld monitors

Prevent CO Poisoning on Boats

Recent news articles have brought our attention to the potential hazards of CO Poisoning on boats.  While this is something we know could happen we did not realize how prevalent and dangerous this could be until a customer called this week, concerned about the safety of the skiers on his boat.

New Articles linked below:

  • http://www.ijreview.com/2015/07/358008-teen-lake-friends-drowns-autopsy-reveals-breathing/
  • http://www.newson6.com/story/29486246/carbon-monoxide-poisoning-responsible-for-weekend-death-at-grand-lake
  • http://www.kjrh.com/news/local-news/grda-officials-warn-boaters-of-potential-carbon-monoxide-poisoning

A simple CO Monitor could have saved many, if not all of these lives and prevented injury.

Pocket CO Monitor for personnal safety
Pocket CO Monitor Model 300 – $135

GasAlert Extreme CO (GAXT-M-DL)
GasAlert Extreme CO Monitor – $275










There Are CO Monitors installed in the cabin of many larger boats.  However, smaller vessels have none, and the outdoor ski area of boats is unprotected.  This is where Sarah Pool, of Texas was when she was overcome with Carbon Monoxide.  As she was watching other skiers and enjoying the summer on the ski platform of a smaller vessel, she was slowly and silently overcome with Carbon Monoxide.  As she had no life-jacket on when she did pass out and fall in the water, she was unable to yell for help, or help herself.

Image Credit: Screen Shot/ KXAN

A simple and low cost, handheld CO monitor may have saved her live.  Using these portable, yet rugged CO monitors could alert of danger and be the difference between a catastrophic weekend and a great weekend out on the water.

Should you have any questions on CO monitors and safety, please call our gas sensor experts at Gas Sensing today.

Aeroqual Gas Sensor manufacturer receives top honors




According to market research released today Aeroqual is now a major player in the market for air quality monitoring equipment, a market forecasted to be worth $6,147.77 Million by 2019. The company is recognized alongside other major players such as 3M Corporation, Honeywell International and Thermo Fisher Scientific.

The report states that ‘rising air pollution will be the most important growth drivers for this market’. Air pollution is a serious global problem and solving the problem begins with monitoring. However the report also cites the ‘high cost of equipment and lack of government funding for research’ as a barrier to growth. As a result the affordable yet accurate instruments designed and marketed by Aeroqual are a key ingredient to the global air pollution solution.

Markets and Markets, the Dallas, Texas firm behind the research, is ranked no 2 in the world for annually published market research reports. Their report, published in March 2015, gives an overview of the major drivers, restraints, challenges, opportunities, current market trends, and strategies impacting the global Air Quality Monitoring Equipment Market along with the estimates and forecasts of the revenue and market share analysis.

The overall market is predicted to grow to reach $6,147.77 million by 2019 from $3,965.25 million in 2014, growing at a CAGR of 9.15% between 2014 and 2019. In their analysis, the authors show that North America accounted for the largest share of the market in 2014, ‘due to increased health concerns and stringent air pollution control norms by government organizations’. The Asian regional segment is expected to grow at the fastest rate from 2014 to 2019.


Aeroqual is a relatively young company compared to some of the well-established multinational corporations identified in the report – Honeywell and 3M, for example. Founded in 2001 Aeroqual has been pioneering lower cost sensor based measurement techniques for air quality. The fact that Aeroqual is getting recognition alongside traditional manufacturers confirms that sensor-based air quality monitoring is reaching mass market acceptance.

According to the report the other major market players are: 3M Company (U.S.), Cerex Monitoring Solutions, LLC (U.S.), Honeywell International, Inc. (U.S.), HORIBA, Ltd. (Japan), PerkinElmer, Inc. (U.S.), Teledyne Technologies, Inc. (U.S.), Thermo Fisher Scientific Corporation (U.S.), Tisch International (U.S.), and TSI, Inc. (U.S.).