Ozone treats water in third world countries

Church volunteers install water systems in other countries

Posted: Saturday, December 27, 2014 8:15 am

Kelly Goad of Bowling Green traveled to third-world countries during his military service, but he never experienced anything like his recent mission trips installing clean water systems in rural Central America.

“We’ve been in villages where one in four babies die because of the water,” Goad said. “When you know you can do something to keep those children healthy enough and get out of poverty … it’s a thing that God calls us to do.”

In the past four years, Goad has volunteered on at least half a dozen trips with Living Waters for the World, a mission program that installs simple water purification systems in villages with contaminated water sources.

“It is an eye-opening experience that everybody should experience,” Goad said.

The program is run by the Synod of Living Waters, the regional governing body of Presbyterian churches in a four-state area, including Kentucky. The synod was named for the abundant water resources in the region.

The Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green, of which Goad is a member, has helped with the installation of more than a dozen water purification systems through Living Waters for the World.

Goad and several other volunteers from the church recently got back from the village of Armenia in western Belize, where they surveyed a potential new site for a water system.

“We test the water to see what they’re drinking and we always find that it’s just not acceptable at all,” Goad said. “Contaminated water is the No. 1 killer of children around the world.”

The villagers usually don’t know their water source is polluted, so residents get sick without realizing the cause, said Tom Moody, who coordinates the Living Waters projects at the Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green.

“The whole health of the community can be vastly improved with the water purification system,” he said.

Goad and the other volunteers will return to Belize in 2015 to install the purification system of pumps and filters.

“We filter with UV light or ozone,” Goad said. Local residents “think of chlorine as bleach and they will not drink it.”

In addition to installing the system, the volunteers train villagers to operate and maintain it so they’ll have access to clean, affordable water for generations, he said.

“We teach them a business plan,” he said.

Since the program started in the early 1990s, more than 600 purification units have been installed in 18 countries, according to John Gramling, a member of the Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green who served on the committee that started the Living Waters program more than 20 years ago using a $3,000 grant.

Rather than focusing on larger cities in the developing world, as many organizations do, “our concept was looking at small villages and having a direct interest in their own backyard,” Gramling said.

“I never dreamed that it would grow so big,” he said. “I’m still a little overwhelmed.”

Ozone for difficult to treat water

Ozone is commonly used for water treatment.  However, ozone alone is not the answer.  Ozone does a great job oxidizing organics, or disinfection.

But when metals, or minerals need to be removed from the water ozone should be used in conjunction with filtration, settling tanks, and ion exchange softeners.  How do you know what filters, and components you need?  Let us help.  We have turn-key prefabricated water treatment systems.

ozone water treatment system
ozone water treatment system

We have designed turn-key systems implementing the following:

  • Ozone Generator from oxygen or dry air
  • Injection system with pump and venturi
  • Ozone contact tank used as a settling tank
  • Back-washable sand filters
  • Ion exchange water softener

We have the experience necessary to make this system work for you.  We can treat the most difficult water, thus saving you money from drilling a new well, or piping water in from an other location.

Ozone filtration system

Common applications are:

  • Iron removal from water (up to 10 ppm)
  • Manganese removal from water
  • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) removal
  • Sulfide removal
  • Calcium, or hardness removal

Should you have hard to treat water and need a new solution, contact us, we would be glad to discuss your application.

Measuring Ozone in an Occupied Room

Measuring Ozone in an Occupied Room
ozone concentrations can vary greatly at various locations, and the concentrations are often highest in unexpected places. Key points to consider are:
  • Ozone is much heavier than air and tends to sink to lower levels.
  • Ozone has a low vapor pressure and so it doesnot try to fill the room uniformly. It tends to stay where it is.
  • Ozone tends to cling to rough surfaces such as fabrics and breaks down (converts back to oxygen) when passing through restricted and obstructed passageways.
  • Ozone reverts back to oxygen with a “half life” (time to go to half of its original concentration) typically of 10-30 minutes.
  • Ozone can be confused by instrumentation with other oxidizing gases such as chlorine compounds, acid fumes, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Strong “reducing” gases, such as vapors of alcohol and  solvents, can reduce the apparent concentration of ozone.
  • Ozone has a sweet smell, but the odor threshold varies widely by the person and by ambiental conditions. Therefore “smell” is not a reliable test for the presence or concentration of ozone.
The important measurement is:
What is the ozone concentration at the breathing level where room occupants will be?
For ozone introduced via HVAC systems with good room air circulation, the alternate point of measurement is near the entrance to the return air duct.
Suggested ozone Monitors:
A-21ZX Ozone Sensor
A-21ZX Ozone Sensor
C-30ZX Ozone Monitor
C-30ZX Ozone Monitor
OS-6 Ozone Controller
OS-6 Ozone Controller

Ozone Leak Detection

Tech Tip.

Ozone Leak Detection is an inevitable part of operating any long term ozone system.  As with any toxic gas used for industrial and commercial applications eventually fittings, piping, and parts will eventually fail, allowing that toxic gas, in this case ozone, to leak.  What makes ozone slightly more challenging is the difficulty to measure ozone.  Ozone detectors have to measure a oxidant that is slowly destroying the very sensor intended for finding the ozone gas.  The short half life of ozone is also challenging.  Now it is there, later it is not.  Is there really a leak?

Below is a link to an article written by Eco-Sensors a manufacturer of ozone sensors.

Tips for Measuring Ozone in an Occupied Room

Here are some helpful tips for finding ozone leaks:

Use a high quality ozone sensor.  To find an ozone leak use an ozone sensor that responds quickly to ozone.  We suggest the C-16, or the A-21ZX.  See information in hyper links for details.  Both of these sensors will react quickly to ozone, and can help pinpoint the ozone leak.  The C-16 uses a probe that can pinpoint exact location.  This is our personal favorite ozone sensor.

Turn down the ozone.  The ozone level in the room can quickly become dangerously high limiting your time in the room to find the ozone leak.  Try turning the ozone generator down to the lowest level to produce less ozone and give yourself more time.

Turn off the ozone.  It may be necessary to turn off the ozone all together.  Keep your feed-gas operational but turn off the ozone generator.  Use a bottle of soapy water, and some patience.  you will eventually find the gas leaking by seeing bubbles forming near the fitting or piping.

Use common sense.  If your still not winning the battle, step back and think this through.  Where will ozone most likely be leaking?  Are there any pipes or hoses that commonly have vibration or movement, these would be most likely to spring a leak.  Are there components or fittings that have recently been opened?  Concentrate your efforts on threaded fittings, and push type fittings.  These are most common leaks.


Most of all take your time and be patient.

Also, feel free to give us a call, we would be glad to share our experience with you.


A-21ZX Ozone Sensor
A-21ZX Ozone Sensor – $679
C-16 PortaSens II Gas Detector
C-16 Ozone Leak Sensor – $1495


Ozone use for insect removel in grain

Ozone may provide environmentally safe protection for grains


WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – Taking a clue from air purification systems used in surgical suites, Purdue University researchers have discovered that ozone can eliminate insects in grain storage facilities without harming food quality or the environment.

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Ironically, the gas is being touted as a fumigant alternative in response to an international treaty banning the use of ozone-layer harming chemicals currently used to rid food storage facilities of insects. When ozone is used for killing grain insects, it lasts for a very short period of time without damaging the environment or the grain, the Purdue scientists report in the January issue Journal of Stored Products Research.

“Ozone has a very short half-life and we’re using relatively low dosages, but enough to kill an insect,” said Linda Mason, Purdue entomology associate professor and co-author of the study. “The chemicals currently used can kill everything in and around the grain bin, including people. With ozone, we’re not generating ozone at deadly concentrations, and we have better control over it when it’s present.”

Purdue’s Post Harvest Grain Quality Research team began its studies in response to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to prohibit substances deemed dangerous to the Earth’s ozone layer. One such substance is methyl bromide, commonly used against crop pests in the soil and in grain storage facilities. Beginning in 2005, it no longer will be available.

A replacement for chemical fumigants is imperative because insects not only eat the grain, they defecate on it causing development of fungi, primarily Fusarium and Aspergillus. These fungi can release potentially deadly mycotoxins that can cause illness in most livestock and have been linked to some forms of human cancer. In humans, approximately 76 million cases of food-borne disease occur annually in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Experts estimate that 5 percent to 10 percent of the world’s food production is lost each year because of insects, and in some countries that figure is believed to be as high as 50 percent.

In the latest study, Purdue researchers used ozone to treat rice, popcorn, soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat, soybeans and corn. They used five-gallon plastic pails and 50-gallon steel drums, storage bins filled with grain, and buried mesh bags all filled with grain and a known number of grain-eating bugs to test ozone’s killing efficacy. The team’s previous studies on ozone flow and effectiveness in eliminating insects were done either in similar storage containers or in 500-bushel bins built for pilot studies at the Purdue Agronomy Farm.

The ozone treatment of grain included two applications of ozone. In the first, the ozone moves through the grain slowly because the gas reacts, or bonds, with matter on the grain surface. This first treatment allows ozone to react with most of the grain surface and degrades the ozone, Mason said. With the second ozone application, the gas moves through the grain more quickly because it isn’t slowed by reactions with the grain. This allows the ozone to kill the insects by reacting with them rather than the grain.

Testing different grains allowed the scientists to answer two important questions. One was whether ozone flowed differently through grains that were less porous or of a different kernel size than corn, such as wheat. The second was how exposure to ozone affects the quality of food products made from the treated grain.

Dirk Maier, a Purdue agricultural and biological engineering professor, studied how to make the ozone flow efficiently and effectively through grain storage bins. Charles Woloshuk, a botany and plant pathology professor, studied ozone effects on molds and mycotoxins. Fidel Mendez, a botany master’s degree student, studied the final products produced from the treated grain to determine if they were the same quality as those made from untreated grain.

“We wanted to determine if the grain looked any different; if it milled the same way; if it made flour the same way. Does bread taste the same when made from ozonated wheat?” Mason said. “Essentially, there were no differences. The food industry can take grain that’s been treated with ozone and know it won’t affect their ability to come up with the same products in the end.”

The team also checked how ozone treatments affected amounts of important amino acids and essential fatty acids, fats not produced by the body. The treatments caused no significant difference in any of the nutritional and metabolic values of these substances in any of the grains studied, Mason said.

The scientists began their study after a company that uses ozone air purification systems in hospitals noticed that air vents were cockroach free. Absence of cockroaches in a large building is unusual, so the researchers tested various ozone doses on different insects and found the gas was fatal to bugs.

“All the species we tested seemed affected,” Mason said. “The only ones we don’t have control over are immature weevils since they are hidden within the kernels. Ozone, unlike chemical fumigants, doesn’t penetrate into the kernel enough to kill immature insects.”

Currently, the researchers are studying ways to use ozone as a preventative treatment by possibly sealing of grain storage facilities with layers of ozone, much the way a jelly jar is capped with wax.

The USDA National Research Initiative provided funding for this study.


Click Here for more info on the use of ozone in grain treatment.

Ozone helps conserve water

Ozone-On-Demand™ Reduces Water Treatment Cost By 20%

Contact The Supplier


Pinnacle Ozone Solutions’ new generation of smart Ozone-On-Demand (OOD™) generator and control technology can help significantly reduce the cost and complexity of ozone water treatment. By precisely matching ozone production to real-time demand, the North Burleigh Water Treatment Plant (WTP) near Bismarck, North Dakota increased treatment capacity by 64% while simultaneously reducing unitoperating cost by over 20%. The results clearly demonstrate that newer, more efficient ozone generation and controls technologies are ideally suited for small to medium treatment plants, especially those using membranes.

Since its construction in early 2005, the North Burleigh Water Treatment Plant near Bismarck, North Dakota has used ozone in both its pre-treatment and disinfection process steps. Although many treatment plants experience seasonal variations in raw water quality, the conditions at the Burleigh site are especially challenging. Because the plant draws raw water from a series of angle wells drilled beneath the Missouri River, even slight changes in river water level or quality influence the incoming mix of surface and groundwater. Especially challenging are concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can often reach 5.0 mg/l, 0.8 mg/l, and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, and can fluctuate by more than 30% throughout any give  day.

To improve treatment, the Burleigh plant uses ozone for both pre-treatment and disinfection. However, managing ozone demand and production was a real challenge. To compensate, the plant often ran its older air-based ozone system at 100% capacity and then dosed 10-15 mg/l of sodium bisulfite to prevent damage to the downstream microfiltration – reverse osmosis (MF-RO) membranes. While effective, this process was difficult to manage, inefficient, and costly to operate.

Can ozone gas fix leg pain from disc herniation?

Can ozone gas fix leg pain from disc herniation? 5 quick facts on Triojection System’s first try Featured

Written by  Laura Dyrda |

The first surgery performed with the Minimus Spine Triojection System was performed in Italy.

Here are five quick facts about the procedure:


• Dr. Josip Buric performed the procedure alongside Drs. Luca Coro and Luca Rigobello
• Triojection involves controlled delivery of ozone gas to a herniated disc to relieve pain
• Patients undergo the procedure with local anesthetic
• Each procedure takes around 15 minutes
• Dr. Buric reported Visual Analogue Scale scores dropping from eight to 10 before surgery to zero to two within a week after surgery


“Although I have been using the ozone for some 20 years, the Triojection System takes ozone delivery to a herniated disc to a new level,” says Dr. Buric. “Triojection gives a much higher level of confidence that the procedure minimizes the infection risk and ensures that a consistent concentration is administered to the disc. The initial follow-up on the first four patients shows early results to be very good.”


The system offers a single injection to relieve leg pain related to herniated discs. The procedure can be done at a lower cost to the healthcare system than surgery, and allow patients to avoid an invasive procedure. Now, Minimus Spine plans to move forward with plans for a multicenter, randomized, postmarket study in Europe.


“That study is designed to compare the outcomes of Triojection to surgical discectomy,” said Minimus Spine President and CEO David Hooper, PhD. “We will be looking to these results to provide the basis for discussions related to market adoption, reimbursement and the U.S. regulatory pathway. While we have had significant interest from distributors around the world, we are prioritizing this clinical study as our key value driver next year.”

What is ozone therapy, what does it have to do with the Ebola virus?

Going Viral

Santa Rosa MD heads to Sierra Leone to battle Ebola virus

Ozone use for fruit growers in New Zealand

NZ fruit growers embrace ozone tech for healthy orchards

After a successful trial on a kiwifruit orchard in New Zealand, an ozone technology that encourages plant health has been embraced by producers including Turners & Growers (NZX: TUR). While OA-Global director Brendon Spencer emphasizes his company’s ozone-based overhead spraying system is not a cure for vine disease Psa, it has great potential for fighting bacteria across different fruit crops. The executive now hopes Chilean growers will embrace the innovation, and is also curious to see how it will go in counteracting botrytis in grapes.

Spencer is right when he says the results of the technology have been “staggering”, citing a trial that began 18 months ago on a two-hectare Hort16A (marketed as Zespri Gold) farm in Katikati on New Zealand’s North Island.

OA-Global Overhead Spray System

“When this orchard in New Zealand had the choice of deciding what to do in relation to Psa, they could have cut it out to the Bruno rootstock and re-grafted it, they could have tried one more year with copper sprays, or have done something different,” Spencer says.

“He chose ‘different’ and it paid for itself.”

Looking at the orchard’s historical data, it reached an export percentage peak of 88% before Psa damages forced a gradual fall down to 77.5% in 2013. After ozone technology was introduced, this year’s harvest yielded an export percentage of 93.51%.

“We never held out any hope that ozone would cure Psa and I don’t believe that it does, but what it does do is it enables the plant to suppress Psa and its effects to the point where the plant becomes healthier, leaf size is bigger, there is absolutely no outward appearance of Psa, and when the fruit was picked it was in better condition, less undersized than in previous years, and there were larger export percentages.

“So that’s been very welcomed by the fruit industry in New Zealand, and Turners & Growers have now put ozone, as have a number of other companies, into kiwifruit orchards as a result of that trial.”

He says ozone treatment also reduces the need for fungicides and herbicides, as well as the use of copper spraying.

“With the increase of ozone we were  able to eliminate other treatments. For example, in New Zealand we have a problem with cicadas with hundreds of thousands of them before picking – they poo on the leaves, and that turns to fungus which causes leaf rolling.

“To get rid of cicadas and leaf rolling in the orchards, you normally spray the orchards with citric acid. But because there’s ozone already in there, we didn’t need to do that. They stayed away.

Click HERE to learn more about ozone and food applications

Ozone technology and protecting plant wounds

But how does ozone technology work? When ozone comes into contact with a microorganism, the weakly bonded atom oxidizes the cell membrane, causing cell destruction before that bond breaks off and leaves oxygen as a by-product.

“It would appear that ozone induces the plant to produce salicylic acid, which is an in-house immune system of the plant which helps it fight against pathogens and wounds,” says Spencer.

“When you’re in an orchard environment the plant naturally comes into contact with a number of wounds, like when you pick, prune, or if you’ve got leaf drop.

“The plant is continually having its surfaces broken, and when that happens you make the plant susceptible to any outside environment which is harmful to it, including in this case Psa which is an airborne pathogen.”

To clarify the last point, Spencer claims the frequent association of the vine disease with rain and wetter regions is incorrect.

“Zespri have found it 7km up in a weather balloon; it’s airborne, and it’s circulating the globe. It is an air-transmitted pathogen without a doubt,” he says.

A call for Chilean trials

Spencer now calls Santiago de Chile home, and has experienced some success with a variety of ozone-based products in the South American country. However, he sees great promise to repeat the positive performance of the overhead spraying system in kiwifruit orchards.

“There have been a lot of gold orchards already cut out of Chile because of Psa; it’s killed them. Many people have lost their livelihoods as far as kiwifruit orchards are concerned, and they’re opting for other alternatives such as blueberries and cherries.

“I’m not saying this is the silver bullet for Psa, but what I am saying is that with ozone plants will have the ability to fight Psa and not be affected by Psa.”

Spencer thanks Chilean Kiwifruit Committee president Carlos Cruzat for his help with the new venture, but is waiting for a grower who is willing to take on a trial similar to the one that took place in Katikati.

“We’ve got an excellent relationship with the Chilean Kiwifruit Committee. Carlos Cruzat has been very good to me since I’ve been here, and he’s tried really hard to get me an orchard to do a trial.

“Chile would need to write its own protocol on how to apply ozone in an aqueous phase or application, because I don’t know whether the aqueous spraying system would work as efficiently here due to the high humidity and the hotter weather, so we would need to block a trial,” he says, adding the trial needn’t be limited to gold varieties and could also involve green Hayward kiwifruit.

“We are progressive and would like the opportunity to trial that out…we know that it works. It’s worked very well in New Zealand, it’s been embraced by the New Zealand kiwifruit industry.”

Spencer believes financial reasons and weather-related pressures may be behind the fact he hasn’t yet sealed a trial in the country.

“It’s not insurmountable but there is a cost. I think the price per tray is lower in Chile than in New Zealand, so the returns on the orchard aren’t as high, which puts restrictions on any financial expenditure that an orchard would need to come up with to pay for ozone.

“So it’s relative, but if you had a kiwifruit orchard that was overrun with Psa, you cut it out and put something else in, you’re looking at three or four years before you’re going to start to get a yield off the next crop anyway.

“Last year Chile was hit by heavy frosts for three days, and this year it had two days of frosts of which one was bad in particular.”

OA-Global is also doing trials with wine grapes in New Zealand to investigate how it works with botrytis. Spencer calls on Chilean viticulturalists to come on board for a trial as well, and is also open to trials on a range of different fruits around the world where people are interested.

New product in Chile

Spencer also highlights the company’s refrigerated container units have just arrived in Chile, designed with the same principles to ward off bacteria from fruit as it is transported around the globe.

“Chile has a long transit time to market, but we’re now putting these units in containers,” he says.

“It’s retrofitted into a carrier container, produces ozone and uses the circulation system of the refrigerated unit of the container.

“There are multiple settings for it for different fruit types; it’s very small and compact, and it is inexpensive. It’s actually half the cost of the competitor.”

He says the product weighs just 1.2kg (2.64lbs) and has been proven to work very well with blueberries, grapes, apples and kiwifruit.

“We’re still conducting trials for cherries.”

Click HERE to learn more about ozone and food applications