Awareness is growing for a variety of hazardous airborne microbes such as mold, fungi, bacteria and viruses found within the indoor environment. Exposure to these microbes can occur in a variety of indoor settings such as residences, office buildings, hospitals, airplanes, and medical and dental offices. High levels of microbes can also be found in most enclosed locations where people gather such as schools, theatres, restaurants, etc.
The average person spends approximately 90% of their time indoors. This can increase their risk of health more than the outdoors.
Medical research linked Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to numerous allergies, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease and cancer. In addition to this, there are many less severe symptoms and diseases such as congestion, coughing, dermatitis, dry throat, headaches, eye irritation and viral infections that also reduce your well-being and health.
A reduction in fresh air supply in most buildings have a negative side effect of withholding pollutants inside the building. Reductions may be used to conserve air conditioning cooling costs. This affects the health in both short and long term for the occupants of the buildings.
Most odoriferous (aromatic) substances are all organic compounds conjugated linkages which are easily attacked by ozone.
Ozone is particularly useful in odor control in the following areas:
Smoke Odor Removal: Hotel rooms after heavy smoking or parties, cleaners, painting and decorating operations, new carpets.
Buildings: Air recirculation systems, effectively stops algae, fungus and bacteria formation, saves maintenance expenses, cuts down the amount of air needed. It also saves fuel expense.
Apartments: Destroys smelly food and other odors from various apartments, kills odors of garbage rooms and deodorizes party rooms. Most effective in removing odors in all types of ventilated ofﬁce and buildings.
Beauty Parlors: Destroys odors of hair sprays, nail polish, perms, etc. Keeps air fresh.
Super Market Stores: To keep air fresh all the time. Ideal for meat preparation areas, meat and vegetable coolers, fresh ﬁsh areas, etc.
Department Stores: Store smells nice and fresh when opened in the morning.
Banks: Vault areas, storage areas, central ventilating areas, etc.
Hospitals: Chronic care rooms ICU & ICCU, cancer rooms, laundries, food preparation area, garbage rooms, operation theatres, and wards, etc.
Forensic Centers: Morgue rooms, autopsy rooms, laboratory exhaust systems, etc.
Pet Hospitals: Removal of stench of animal excreta and odors.
Process Areas: Removes odor from process areas especially in the sea food industry chemical factory, and to maintain sterile areas in pharmaceutical process areas, electronic industries, etc.
Advantages of Ozone in Air Treatment
Cleans and disinfects air.
Biological air contaminants are destroyed.
Effective against microbes, endo toxins, VOCs and organic odors.
When it comes to Non-Medical oxygen usage, the Pro-5 Oxygen Concentrator comes second to none. 30 years of success in the oxygen industry has now produced the Pro-5 Series. The proven design and years of technological advancements have now brought one of the best oxygen concentrators on the market. The reimagined and sleek device proves that not only does extremely high quality oxygen production have to take up space, but it also does not have to break the bank. Along with the good looks, this product’s wheels, carry handle, and light-weight (only 35 lbs) make it an incredibly portable device as well. Even with it’s light weight, the tough thermoplastic covering also makes it a very durable product. The Pro-5 also comes with a safety alarm to offer an enhanced peace-of-mind while it is being used. All-in-all, this low maintenance oxygen concentrator is great for a multitude of applications.
The OZX-300 Air Dryer is a filter that comes included with your ozone generator. The ozone generator will begin to perform less efficiently as the dust and humidity in your air supply grows. The Air Dryer ensures that your ozone generator is being fed the cleanest air possible. The Air Dryer is a plastic tube that contains small silica beads on the inside, the silica beads then remove a majority of the moisture from the air that goes through it.
The Air Dryer is critical for making sure your ozone generator is working at its peak capabilities, and it is also included when you order an OZX-300 Ozone Generator. After being used, the beads within the air dryer will turn from a red color, into more of a dark greenish color. Once the bead color has transition, simply put them in a microwave or oven to adjust them, as heat will bring the beads back to their original red. (Note: Do not heat the container as a whole, the extended/extreme heat exposure will cause cracking. The beads can be reheated approximately 4-5 times before they will need to be replaced. For replacing beads, please contact Oxidation Technologies. For more information, please look here.)
OZX-300 Ozone Generator
While Oxidation Technologies offers a wide array of industrial-sized ozone generators (OXP, OXG, and OXW) we also offer the OZX-300 Ozone Generator to be used for smaller applications. The OZX-300 allows for smaller objects to be ozonated, without worry of breaking the bank. This ozone generator produces 500 mg/hr of ozone and offers an output dial as well as an adjustable timer to help enhance usability.
This product is shipped with an integrated air pump, ozone tubing, diffusers and an air dryer. All of this means that when the product arrives at your door, it will come ready to produce ozonated water. The OZX-300 Ozone Generator is also great for other applications such as removing bacteria and infectants from fruits & vegetables as well as extending shelf-life expectancy for fresh produce, and even removing odors.
500 mg/hr ozone output (concentration of 4.2 g/m3 [.33%] at 2 LPM flow rate
Integrated air pump + ozone tubing + diffusers
2 LPM air flow rate with integrated air pump
Adjustable ozone output
3/4 PSI air pump pressure (approx. 1.5 feet of water depth)
“References: Bader H. and J. Hoigné, “Determination of Ozone in Water by the Indigo Method,” Water Research Vol. 15, pp. 449-456, 1981. APHA Standard Methods, 23rd ed., Method 4500-03 B-1997.
With the indigo method, indigo trisulfonate dye immediately reacts with ozone. The color of the blue dye decreases in intensity in proportion to the amount of ozone present in the sample. The test reagent is formulated with malonic acid to prevent interference from up to at least 10 ppm chlorine. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) O3.The CHEMetrics Indigo Ozone Vacu-vials® Kit employs an innovative “self-zeroing” feature to eliminate the need to generate a reagent blank. Each Vacu-vials® ampoule is measured before and after being snapped in sample. The change in color intensity, measured in absorbance, between reagent in the unsnapped and snapped ampoule is used to determine the ozone concentration of the sample.”
The indigo test kit can be purchased at the Oxidation Technologies web store. Indigo test kit.
The I-2022 Dissolved Ozone Meter is designed for accurately and quickly measuring ozone in water levels from 0 – 0.75 ppm. This device uses the Indigo Method for testing. This method is based on the colorization of dye by ozone, where the loss of color is directly proportional to the ozone concentration. The results are then displayed on the monitor in ppm (mg/L) of ozone present.
This device has LED display for precise and accurate readout and is easy to use. Once the I-2022 has been purchased the cost per test is only $1.02.
Next, use the dilute method to measure higher concentrations of ozone.
The Indigo snap method test kits will measure up to 0.75 so a dilute procedure can be used to derive an accurate measurement. The video uses the K-7404 kit which used the DPT method, but the principle can be applied to the Indigo kit as well.
Feel free to contact Oxidation Technolgies with any ozone questions.
Our journey to the center of an ozone generating plasma cell begins with a ride around a not-so-lazy river. Perhaps you’ve enjoyed floating in a raft around a lazy river at a hotel or water park. Picture these rafts as electrons flowing through a circuit. Moving magnetic fields are pushing electrons through the fluid media of metal atoms. They follow the circular paths of circuits like rafts floating around and around the lazy river ride. A pump continually pushes the water along.
Unlike the continuous flow in one direction of direct current (DC), alternating current continuously reverses the flow of electrons. Imagine the lazy river model constantly changing direction. The electrons first flow one way, slow, reverse, and rush the other way. The electric supply to your home goes through 60 cycles per second. Our lazy river model begins to defy imagination at this rate of change. You can think of electrons as virtually weightless, unlike all the water and rafts in a lazy river. Electrons are quite capable of reversing direction very quickly.
Energy Transfer The flow of electrons through a wire might be apparent from the glow of a light bulb. As electrons squeeze through a resistive part of the circuit, the wire heats up transferring energy to heat and light. Other things are happening outside the wire. Hold a compass near a wire in which current is flowing, and the needle is pulled away from North. Whenever an electric current flows, a magnetic field develops around the wire. Stop the flow, and the field collapses.
Wrap this conductor into a coil, and the magnetic field is intensified. Add an iron core, and a magnet is born. A continuous flow supports a useful magnetic field, capable of pushing the rotor of a motor or the lever of a switch. Again we notice a transfer of energy, this time from electric current flow to some mechanical motion. Energy transfer doesn’t stop there.
Energy transfer is reversed in a magnetic field when the electric current stops. When current stops or reverses, the magnetic field collapses. The collapsing magnetic field gives electrons a push in the coiled conductor. This phenomena opens up the possibility of generating a flow of electrons in a second circuit that is isolated from the first circuit. It also introduces radio waves. Imagine a second lazy river next to yours. It doesn’t have a pump, so the water is still. But imagine an invisible force generated by the flowing of the first river pushing the water along in the second. Such a transfer of energy happens with the flow of electrons and is essential to ozone production within a plasma cell.
A Dam in the River: The Plasma Cell Heart
A dam in the lazy river brings the rafts to a halt, but build two Olympic sized pools on either side of the dam. Now the river continues to flow awhile even with a dam because it takes time to fill the pool. Depending on the strength of the pump, the water flows for a while as one pool gets a little deeper while the other is drawn down. If you can pump one pool much deeper than the other, a significant stress builds on the dam. Our lazy river could get exciting if the dam were to burst. We are getting closer to the center of a plasma cell.
In your mind you need to convert the Olympic sized swimming pools in our lazy river circuit to large flat pieces of metal. In the electron world, the dam between these two plates is an insulator, a material that prevents the flow of electrons. Electrons pile up on one side while they are drawn down on the other side. Electrons are the negative charge. Pulling electrons away leaves one side with deficiency of electrons: a positive charge. If the insulator were breached, a powerful surge of electrons would create a dramatic spark. It would be equivalent to the deep swimming pool emptying to the shallow one in milliseconds.
It is here at the “dam” where we discover the center of a plasma cell. When the distance between the two electrically charged plates is made smaller, the electrostatic forces between them grow exponentially. In other words, a thinner dam makes a more powerful electrostatic field. But a thin dam is also weaker and more susceptible to failure. The goal is a material that is strong and a good electrical insulator. Ceramic and quartz serve well for this purpose. But without some oxygen present in this high electrical pressure environment, we only have a capacitor and no ozone production.
We need to introduce one more element: a thin layer of oxygen as part of the “electron dam.” We can think of the dam as a sandwich of two insulators with a very thin slice of oxygen between them. When oxygen is exposed to the tremendous electrostatic forces found within this space between highly charged surfaces, the oxygen molecules are pulled apart and re-combine in highly energized forms. I would like to zoom in for a closer look at this sliver of space.
A Peak Inside the World Between Dielectric Barriers
Photographs of this space between the two insulators reveals what appears to be a mini, but intense electrical storm. We are used to thinking about lightning bolts jumping from one charged conductor to another, but in this electrostatic microcosm, the mini “bolts of lightning” are jumping from the surface of one insulator to the surface of the second insulator. In the presence of the strong electric field, the molecules within the insulator become polarized. This means that the electrons are pulled by the positive electrode toward one end of the molecule that make up the insulator. Even though electrons are unable to flow through the insulator, the polarization sets up “pools” of electrons on the surface. We call the insulating material used in in this application a “dielectric.” The type of ozone generator we are entering here is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generator.
Exactly what is happening in this high electrical pressure world between dielectric barriers has been and continues to be a topic of considerable research and study. Already around 1897, John Townsend discovered that the strong electric field in the oxygen space between dielectrics initiates electron avalanches. A free electron among the oxygen atoms accelerates very quickly because it is attracted to the positively charged plate (anode). When it reaches a high enough velocity and collides with an oxygen molecule, it knocks off another electron, turning the molecule into a positively charged ion. This ion begins to move in the opposite direction toward the negatively charged plate (cathode) while the two electrons further accelerate toward the anode and collide with more oxygen molecules. As the growing electron cloud races toward the anode, it leaves a trail of positively charged ions in its wake.
This trail of ions and free electrons is conductive, and allows for a discharge of electric current through the oxygen. The discharge is the flow of electrons that has gathered on the surface of the dielectric towards the positive charge on the other side of the oxygen gap. It is this discharge of energy that breaks the oxygen molecule bonds releasing free oxygen atoms. Some re-combine with single atoms, and others combine with pairs to form highly energized ozone molecules made of three oxygen atoms. The world here at the center of an ozone generator is a stormy one swarming with surges of electrons.
DBD: A Specialized Form of Corona Discharge
The discharge is similar to a spark, but not nearly as hot. It does not result in a discharge of the electrodes. Only small areas of the inside surface of the dielectric discharge with each electron avalanche. The strong electric field induces a secondary, high voltage mini-circuit within the oxygen gap. Thousands of these discharges can be repeated as long as the voltage supplied to the anode and cathode continues to increase.
The power supply for an ozone generator alternates this electric field thousands of time each second. When the pressure (voltage) rises through the threshold that sets off electron avalanches, the discharge storm erupts. Since the electric field changes thousands of times each second, the oxygen gap experiences thousands of storms each second. The optimal frequency and voltage depends on the gap size and oxygen pressure. The electronics controlling the voltage need to be tuned to match the particular dielectric arrangement for optimal ozone production.
The benefits of setting off thousands of mini discharges in a space between insulators instead of simply allowing a spark to ark between the positive and negative electrodes are the following: 1) an arc generates so much heat that it melts most materials. Such an arc is useful for welding or plasma torches, but would destroy an ozone generator. 2) Ozone production is minimal with an arc. Most of the energy is converted to heat and the heat destroys ozone. 3) Producing many small discharges from dielectric surfaces within a strong electrical field stays cooler and yields more ozone.
This form of ozone generation is called “Dielectric Barrier Discharge” (DBD). DBD belongs to a category of corona discharge. Corona discharge was observed by ancient sailors on the masts of their ships as a flare of luminous plasma at the tips of the mast and other pointed parts of their ship when the atmosphere is highly charged. The phenomenon occurs when strong electrostatic forces concentrate at sharp points and break down air to form plasma. You can observe this phenomena with an electrostatic generator in a dark room. Many of the small ozone generators sold for home use rely on a form of corona discharge from sharp points. Higher quantities of high concentration ozone used in commercial applications often use DBD type ozone generators.
Ozone can also be produced with ultraviolet light and radiation bombardment. The ozone layer which protects earth from harmful radiation is produced by ultraviolet light with a wavelength less than 200 nm. Ultraviolet light between about 200 and 300 nm destroys ozone. The ozone layer is maintained with a balance of ozone generation and destruction with ultraviolet light. Ozone can be created in water with electrolysis. Passing an electric current through water breaks the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Using specific electrodes results in oxygen combining to form ozone.
Here at Oxidation Technologies we do not build DBD plasma cells, but we rely on companies who continue to research and build quality generators for a wide range of applications. We specialize in integrating the right ozone generators into specific applications. Dissolving ozone into water requires ozone generators that make higher concentrations of ozone. Many applications can utilize low pressure or even slight vacuum to minimize the danger of ozone leaks. Sometimes controlling precise levels of low ozone concentrations can best be attained with an ultraviolet ozone generator. Whatever your application, we have the expertise to integrate the right ozone generator to your process.
Every day, pharmaceutical companies around the world produce tons of products that people use to enhance their quality of life. This realm of products has been lumped into a category called “Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products,” (PPCPs). These products and drugs do not disappear, but are found increasingly in the water being discharged from wastewater treatment plants. The impact that this cocktail of chemicals has on the animals and people dependent on this water is not fully understood, but the evidence is clear that it is not good.
Ozone is a powerful oxidant capable of breaking troublesome molecules. What impact does ozone have on PPCPs? A recent laboratory study published in the engineering journal of the International Ozone Association (IOA) exposed water containing thirty seven different PPCPs to investigate the degradability of these chemicals.
Eight of the thirty five were very quickly degraded to or below their limit of detection with a dissolved ozone dose of 1ppm within 5 minutes. Five more were degraded with a dissolved ozone dose of 2ppm within 5 minutes. Five more required at least 10 minutes of retention time at 2 ppm.
The other half of the thirty five required more time and a higher dose of ozone. Three of them, (DEET, Ketoprophen, and Primidone) did not degrade below their limit of detection even when exposed to 9ppm of dissolved ozone for 15 minutes.
Ozone clearly has a significant role to play with PPCP cleanup. Further study is sure to discover ways to optimize the process and make it more effective. Oxidation Technologies specializes in integrating ozone into the specific process of diverse customers. We continue to pursue a better understanding of ozone use in a variety of applications.
N. Evelin Paucar, Ilho Kim, Hiroaki Tanaka & Chikashi Sato (2019) Ozonetreatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater, Ozone: Science & Engineering, 41:1, 3-16, DOI: 10.1080/01919512.2018.1482456
Legionnaires’ disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by breathing mist from water containing the bacteria. The bacteria thrive in the warm water found in whirlpool spas, cooling towers, fountains, humidifiers, produce misters, etc. Symptoms of Legionnaires’ disease include high fever, a cough, and sometimes muscle aches and headaches.
The rate of reported cases has increased over 5 fold since 2000, and deadly outbreaks continue today unabated. The reason or reasons behind this increase are unclear at this point, but ozone has proven to be effective at controlling the bacteria in water. Whether the bacteria are flourishing within a 100 gallon fountain or a 1000 ton cooling tower, the engineers at Oxidation Technologies will maintain will provide the precise dose of ozone needed for safe water.
Ozone that is safely dissolved into water has a tremendous disinfectant power and simply turns back into oxygen after expending its energy. As little as 0.01 ppm (1 part ozone to 100 million parts water) prevents the growth of these bacteria. We provide cost effective equipment and long term service to ensure safe and effective use of ozone for bacteria control.
The equipment needed to dissolve low levels of ozone into water can be very cost effective and sustainable for many water systems. A home well-water system uses one of the smallest ozone generators we sell to dissolve enough ozone when the well pump runs to disinfect all the water needed in a typical home. As a general rule of thumb for industrial cooling towers, five grams of ozone per hour is needed for every 100 tons of tower cooling capacity.
The 50 g/h ozone generator needed to supply a 1000 ton cooling tower will also require an oxygen concentrator, venturi, ORP controller, and sometimes a booster pump. The oxygen concentrator and controller comes in a complete package with our OXG systems. The following study conducted by Mazzei reports a one year payback for ozone use due to lower chemical and cleaning costs.
We also provide the convenience of a quarterly preventative maintenance plan to make sure the system continues to perform at peak efficiency and avoid costly repairs due to neglected maintenance. We often work with an independent water company that provides routine testing for the customer to make sure water quality remains good and inform us of any problems.
High iron content in water often results in disagreeable metallic taste and unappealing color in cooked vegetables. Although not a health threat, iron bacteria thrive in this water and contribute to biofilm and discoloration. Dissolved iron eventually leads to ugly stains on fixtures and clogged pipes. Removing iron from your water supply is well worth the investment.
The most common piece of water treatment equipment for homeowners is the water softener. Your water softener is designed to remove calcium from the water. It may remove some of the iron, but iron is prone to stick to the resin bed and is difficult to flush out.
An iron filter is a much more effective method for removing iron. There are a variety of filter systems, but they all follow the two step process of oxidizing the iron and then filtering it out. Iron that is dissolved in water can’t be filtered out until it is oxidized or made into larger rust particles that are large enough to be filtered.
Simply aerating water containing dissolved iron will begin the oxidation process needed for filtration. This method is simple, but can introduce some new problems such as increased bacteria growth. It is also slower and difficult to control effectively.
Some compact home iron filtration devices contain media which accelerates the oxidization process and also serves as a filter to remove the oxidized particles. Like a water softener, these systems require periodic back flushing and eventually require chemical regeneration. The effectiveness of these systems is dependent on PH levels and do not disinfect the water. Iron bacteria can still cause problems by leaving ugly stains on water fixtures.
Adding a chemical feed pump to introduce chlorine, calcium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate increases the oxidation. These systems are able to remove higher iron levels and also serve to disinfect the water. The disadvantage is the ongoing cost of dangerous chemicals.
Ozone has been used for water treatment for over a hundred hears. It is used extensively for bottled water treatment because it is an effective disinfectant and improves taste and color. Oxidation Technologies specializes in harnessing the power of ozone for a variety of water treatment needs.
During some recent lab testing I had some high concentration dissolved ozone solution to play with. It was easy to see a 50 ppm ozone solution rapidly destroying color molecules in water. Ozone breaks apart bacterial, viruses and other water contaminants like it breaks apart the color molecules. Here at Oxidation Technologies we do a variety of product exposure testing with ozone. We are always happy to talk to you about harnessing the power of ozone for your application. Give us a call at 515-635-5854. Check out our website for fast and easy source of all ozone related supplies.
Efficient and accurate ozone production requires accurate measurements of gas flow rates. The rota-meter style flow-meter is a simple, robust, and accurate way to measure the flow of gas or liquid. The only moving part is a metal ball (float) within a tapered transparent tube. As flow rate increases, the ball rises. Try out this quick, one-question quiz to test your ability to read this instrument.
One limitation to this device is its inability to factor in gas pressure in a direct reading. Gas under pressure is squeezed together so more gas is able to flow past the ball than it reads. Some flow-meters are calibrated for a specific gas pressure. Such meters are accurate only at that pressure. This limitation is easily overcome with a simple calculation. You can calculate an accurate flow rate at any pressure when you know the gas pressure of the gas flowing through the meter. How did you do on the quiz? If you haven’t tried it yet, check out our calculator page for better chance of getting it right.