Air Treatment

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems have had ozone applied to them on a large scale, there are some major reasons behind this, such as:

                -The public has become growingly aware that indoor air quality (IAQ) can be can be improved

                -Heightened intolerance towards smoking along with the increased knowledge that common chemicals can negatively impact IAQ

                -Technological advancements within the ozone industry (particularly in ozone generators/monitors) make system controls more realistic

                -Payback economics: savings in energy along with other factors

The main industrial sectors to heavily invest in ozone air treatment are gaming institutions like casinos, bingo halls, and card rooms, as well as applications within the hospitality industry (restaurants, showrooms, bowling alleys). These areas have seen high returns investing in air quality, in large part due to the common chemicals in these areas that would lower overall air quality (ex: cigarettes being allowed in most gaming buildings). Many smaller projects have also been applicated to places like taverns, designated smoking areas and advanced technology facilities where complete-building air treatment is not deemed necessary.

Most voiced objections towards ozone are in reference to its overall safety. When using ozone in public areas, the concentrations must be kept below the harmful levels. Self-controlling systems, that combine advanced ozone generation with ozone monitoring systems make this increasingly possible. However, among cognizant agencies, we do see discernment as to what should be deemed the safe levels and suitable ozone concentration guidelines. For areas where people gather together, the US FDA has stated a limit of .05 ppm. HVAC systems are programmed with automatic controls to typically stay under concentrations of .03-.05 ppm. However, these concentrations are lower than what we see occur naturally in outdoor settings, in most regions. “For ozone injected into HVAC systems it is absolutely necessary to include ozone sensors to automatically control the ozone concentration in areas where the public congregate.”

2 Major Applications

                -Casinos: Gaming facilities are continually growing worldwide, and a majority of resorts are now including them. Smoking is typically found in high quantities in most casinos, and it is a major irritant for customers as well as employees. Ozone is incredibly effective in getting rid of the unpleasant smell caused by smoking, due to the variety of VOC’s that can be found in the smoke.

                -Dubai International Airport: Odds are this is the largest ozonated HVAC system in the world, with the air treatment being applicated to all of the buildings. The airport has over 300 ozone sensor/controllers along with VOC sensor/controllers. There are many ozone generators spread throughout the HVAC ductwork, treating virtually all of the interior spaces. Preliminary findings from the Dubai International Airport were passengers and employees noted a pleasant air smell, as well as improved air quality. The airport also cut costs by spending less on maintenance, mainly because they no longer had to replace carbon filters.

More information on ozone and Air Treatment, can be found here.

Sources: Rip Rice, from the IOA https://www.ioa-pag.org/

OXS Injection Systems for Aquaculture and Hydroponics

OXS Water Treatment System

In the above image you can see an OXS-10 Ozone Water System. Ozone is an incredibly efficient component when it comes to aquaculture and hydroponics. In reference to hydroponics, the use of ozone can help in oxygenating root zones, as well as disinfecting and enhancing the hydroponic water quality. For aquaculture, ozone is used to improve water quality, reduce pathogens, and increase efficiency of the water treatment systems. We created a video going through the functions of the OXS-10, to see the video, Please Click Here! You can also Click Here to see more information, as well as purchasing options, for the OXS Ozone Water System.

Aquaculture

Aquaculture is the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, algae, and other organisms in all types of water environments. 2 of the main applications we see ozone used in aquaculture is for fish farming and ozonated ice. Ozone works great for fish farming because it keeps the water cleaner, and therefore, the fish healthier. Healthier fish can eat more feed and grow bigger/faster. After fish are harvested, they are usually put on ice. By dissolving ozone into water and quickly freezing the water, ozone is essentially trapped within the ice. Locking ozone into the ice and setting the fish on top of the ice allows for the ozone to be slowly released and increases the shelf life for the fish.

Hydroponics

One of the definitions of hydroponics is as follows, “Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions (water and fertilizers) with or without the use of artificial medium (ex., sand, gravel, vermiculite, rockwool) to provide mechanical support. Liquid hydroponic systems have no other supporting medium for the plant roots: aggregate systems have a solid medium of support.”

Hydroponics Benefits

  • Water Conservation
  • Produce Higher Yields
  • Less Labor Requirements
  • No Soil Needs
  • High Quality Foods

How Does Ozone Enhance Hydroponics?

Ozone allows us to disinfect water before it is used in a hydroponic system and gives us more control over the pathogens and algae that are present. Because of ozone’s efficiency in disinfection it is great for destroying bacteria, virus, and fungi, as well as eliminating microbes, algae and pathogens. It also gives us the ability to increase oxygen levels in the plants which can aid in increasing crop yields. Using ozone for disinfection saves money on chemical fertilizer, and can even get rid of unwanted smells inside of greenhouses.

Contact Us Today to speak with an industry expert on how we can help you!

Sources: solutionozone.com, edengreen.com, cals.arizona.edu

Custom Oxygen Concentrators

Newly-built Custom Oxygen Concentrator

We can build custom oxygen concentrators to fit many different specifications for a wide array of applications. The picture above shows one of the customized oxygen concentrators that we have recently built. For this particular unit, the customer was looking for a system that would produce oxygen at approximately 70% purity. Although typical oxygen concentrators produce roughly 93% pure oxygen, we were able to easily create an oxygen generator that met our customers specific needs. In the picture above, we can see the “Air Flow Control” knob, as well as the “Oxygen Flow Control” knob. This addition to the oxygen generator give the user the ability to easily adjust the purity of their oxygen flow. To decrease the oxygen purity, the user simply has to increase the air flow and decrease the ozone flow. Were purer oxygen desired, the opposite actions would need to be taken. Along with the adjustability, we also added in an easy-to-read LED screen to the front of the unit (see in the images below) so the user can know the specific purity of the oxygen being produced. Contact us today to talk with an industry expert and find out how we can build a system to fit your needs.

Upper-Right Corner shows the screen displaying the precise oxygen purity level.
Another view of one of our custom oxygen concentrators.

There are many different options when it comes to the customizability of these oxygen concentrators. While the unit seen above had a focus on the oxygen purity, other attributes can be factors for customization, such as the oxygen pressure, flow, and concentration. We can easily adjust the pressure, flow, and/or concentration of oxygen to fit all of your specific needs. Along with these simple customizations, we also now offer high pressure oxygen concentrators. The TOX-20 through 40 are now available in high pressure models. One of the great things about the HP series of oxygen concentrators is that they provide oxygen pressures of 90 PSI continuously, as well as a storage tank (ranging from 20 to 30 gallons) to store oxygen. To view our full line of high pressure oxygen concentrators, Please Click Here.

TOX-40 HP

If you would like to reach out and ask about our custom oxygen concentrators, Please Click Here.

To see all of the oxygen generators we offer, Click Here.

Building Your Own Ozone Chamber

Ozone Chambers

There are many different options for ozone chambers. Many chambers will have an integrated turnkey system where ozone will be produced from the chamber itself. However, if you are looking for a more cost-effective option, or, you already have a chamber, room, or enclosure you want to control ozone levels inside of, building your own ozone chamber is a great alternative. This article will go over the different products necessary for assembling an ozone chamber, as well as some different specifications to take note of to make sure you get the products that will best fit your applications.

For more information on custom ozone chambers, as well as the products we suggest using, Please Click Here!

Here we can see the inside of one of our chambers, with an internal fan to ensure ozone is being properly circulated.

Components

Ozone Generator – The most important component is the ozone generator to produce ozone for your ozone chamber!

Choose the ozone generator size and output, normally rated in g/hr (grams per hour), based upon the following factors

  • Size of your ozone chamber – larger chamber = more ozone demand
  • Level of ozone required inside your chamber, normally measured in ppm. Higher ozone levels desired will require larger ozone generators
  • Temperature of the chamber – higher temperatures will increase the ozone half-life and demand more ozone
  • Organic loading in the chamber – material in the chamber that will consume ozone due to natural organic loading should be considered

See our selection of ozone generators HERE.

Ozone Monitor – An ozone monitor is required to measure ozone in the chamber and switch a relay in the ozone monitor to control the ozone levels. The ozone monitor will be located outside of the chamber with either a remote sensor, or small Teflon tubing inlet port placed inside the chamber to detect ozone levels.

Two main options are available to measure ozone

  • UV based ozone analyzer – pulls a sample of ozone gas from the chamber, passes through a UV lamp and measures ozone by determining how much ozone is absorbed by the UV lamp. This method allows for ozone detection accuracy up to 1%, and measurements from 0.001 ppm up to 10,000 ppm and even higher.
  • Remote mount sensor based ozone monitor – an ozone sensor is placed inside the chamber and wired to the main ozone monitor placed outside the chamber. This method allows for ozone detection accuracy ranging from 5 – 20% and measurement from 0.01 ppm up to 200 ppm reliably. These sensors are a lower price point than the UV analyzer and are normally used when cost is a concern.

The ozone measurement device must have a built-in relay that can be wired to the RCB-1 relay box that will turn the ozone generator ON/OFF. This relay should be easy to set and alter if necessary.

See our selection of ozone monitors HERE

See our selection of UV based ozone analyzers HERE

Relay Control – The relay control box has three components to it necessary for creating the ozone chamber. By looking at the image above, we can see the three different cords coming from the bottom of it (smaller white box on the far right side of the above image). Its far-left cord is simply connected to a wall outlet to supply power. The thinner, middle cord connects to the ozone monitor (far left, white/blue item) and then its far-right cord connects to the ozone generators power cord, and supplies power to the ozone generator. When it comes to which relay control box to use, Oxidation Technologies offers the RCB-1.

Ambient Ozone Sensor – We also highly recommend using either the C-30ZX Ozone Monitor, or the SM-70 Ozone Monitor to read for ozone in the air. This ensures that your environment is safe and free of ozone. Both of these monitors offer accurate ozone readings, compact designs, and low maintenance making them easy to use as well as extremely efficient.

How It Works

Looking at the diagrams below, ‘DIAGRAM 1’ shows the set-up for a custom ozone chamber when you are using one of the bench mount ozone analyzers, and then ‘DIAGRAM 2’ is showing the same basic scheme, but with a remote ozone sensor. However, the basic procedures are going to be the same, independent of which monitor set-up you decide to go with.

Following the diagrams below, we can see the procedures that will occur when your custom ozone chamber is working properly. First, using dry-air or oxygen as the feed-gas, your ozone generator will begin producing ozone for the chamber. Then, the ozone analyzer (or remote sensor) will read how much, in PPM, ozone is present in the chamber. The reading from the ozone analyzer will then be transferred to the RCB-1 relay control. Based on the reading given to the RCB-1, it will transfer a signal to the ozone generator to either continue producing ozone for the chamber, or to stop the ozone production.

DIAGRAM 1
DIAGRAM 2

Contact Us

For help creating your custom ozone chamber, please contact us here!

Ozone Uses in Odor Control

The Problem Today

Awareness is growing for a variety of hazardous airborne microbes such as mold, fungi, bacteria and viruses found within the indoor environment. Exposure to these microbes can occur in a variety of indoor settings such as residences, office buildings, hospitals, airplanes, and medical and dental offices. High levels of microbes can also be found in most enclosed locations where people gather such as schools, theatres, restaurants, etc.

The average person spends approximately 90% of their time indoors. This can increase their risk of health more than the outdoors.

Medical research linked Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to numerous allergies, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease and cancer. In addition to this, there are many less severe symptoms and diseases such as congestion, coughing, dermatitis, dry throat, headaches, eye irritation and viral infections that also reduce your well-being and health.

A reduction in fresh air supply in most buildings have a negative side effect of withholding pollutants inside the building. Reductions may be used to conserve air conditioning cooling costs. This affects the health in both short and long term for the occupants of the buildings.

Odor

Most odoriferous (aromatic) substances are all organic compounds conjugated linkages which are easily attacked by ozone.

Ozone is particularly useful in odor control in the following areas:

  • Smoke Odor Removal: Hotel rooms after heavy smoking or parties, cleaners, painting and decorating operations, new carpets.
  • Buildings: Air recirculation systems, effectively stops algae, fungus and bacteria formation, saves maintenance expenses, cuts down the amount of air needed. It also saves fuel expense.
  • Apartments: Destroys smelly food and other odors from various apartments, kills odors of garbage rooms and deodorizes party rooms. Most effective in removing odors in all types of ventilated office and buildings.
  • Beauty Parlors: Destroys odors of hair sprays, nail polish, perms, etc. Keeps air fresh.
  • Super Market Stores: To keep air fresh all the time. Ideal for meat preparation areas, meat and vegetable coolers, fresh fish areas, etc.
  • Department Stores: Store smells nice and fresh when opened in the morning.
  • Banks: Vault areas, storage areas, central ventilating areas, etc.
  • Hospitals: Chronic care rooms ICU & ICCU, cancer rooms, laundries, food preparation area, garbage rooms, operation theatres, and wards, etc.
  • Forensic Centers: Morgue rooms, autopsy rooms, laboratory exhaust systems, etc.
  • Pet Hospitals: Removal of stench of animal excreta and odors.
  • Process Areas: Removes odor from process areas especially in the sea food industry chemical factory, and to maintain sterile areas in pharmaceutical process areas, electronic industries, etc.

Advantages of Ozone in Air Treatment

  • Cleans and disinfects air.
  • Biological air contaminants are destroyed.
  • Effective against microbes, endo toxins, VOCs and organic odors.
  • No toxic chemicals need be employed.

To see Oxidation Technologies wide variety of ozone generators, please click here!

Introducing: PRO-5 Oxygen Concentrator

THE PRO-5 Oxygen Concentrator

When it comes to Non-Medical oxygen usage, the Pro-5 Oxygen Concentrator comes second to none. 30 years of success in the oxygen industry has now produced the Pro-5 Series. The proven design and years of technological advancements have now brought one of the best oxygen concentrators on the market. The reimagined and sleek device proves that not only does extremely high quality oxygen production have to take up space, but it also does not have to break the bank. Along with the good looks, this product’s wheels, carry handle, and light-weight (only 35 lbs) make it an incredibly portable device as well. Even with it’s light weight, the tough thermoplastic covering also makes it a very durable product. The Pro-5 also comes with a safety alarm to offer an enhanced peace-of-mind while it is being used. All-in-all, this low maintenance oxygen concentrator is great for a multitude of applications.

Typical Application

Manufacturing

-Glass Work/Blowing

-Brazing/Soldering/Jewelry

-Thermal/Chemical Oxidation

Environmental

-Ozone (Generator) Feed Gas

-Waste/Water Treatment

-Environmental Remediation

Additional

-Fish Farming

-Aquaponics

-Hydroponics

Product Specs:

For more information + purchasing options: Please click here.

Product Spotlight: OZX-300 Ozone Generator

With our website recently adding the OZX-300 Air Dryer, it is time to look into exactly what the OZX-300 Ozone Generator and Air Dryer are used for.

OZX-300 Air Dryer

The OZX-300 Air Dryer is a filter that comes included with your ozone generator. The ozone generator will begin to perform less efficiently as the dust and humidity in your air supply grows. The Air Dryer ensures that your ozone generator is being fed the cleanest air possible. The Air Dryer is a plastic tube that contains small silica beads on the inside, the silica beads then remove a majority of the moisture from the air that goes through it.

The Air Dryer is critical for making sure your ozone generator is working at its peak capabilities, and it is also included when you order an OZX-300 Ozone Generator. After being used, the beads within the air dryer will turn from a red color, into more of a dark greenish color. Once the bead color has transition, simply put them in a microwave or oven to adjust them, as heat will bring the beads back to their original red. (Note: Do not heat the container as a whole, the extended/extreme heat exposure will cause cracking. The beads can be reheated approximately 4-5 times before they will need to be replaced. For replacing beads, please contact Oxidation Technologies. For more information, please look here.)

OZX-300 Ozone Generator

While Oxidation Technologies offers a wide array of industrial-sized ozone generators (OXP, OXG, and OXW) we also offer the OZX-300 Ozone Generator to be used for smaller applications. The OZX-300 allows for smaller objects to be ozonated, without worry of breaking the bank. This ozone generator produces 500 mg/hr of ozone and offers an output dial as well as an adjustable timer to help enhance usability.

This product is shipped with an integrated air pump, ozone tubing, diffusers and an air dryer. All of this means that when the product arrives at your door, it will come ready to produce ozonated water. The OZX-300 Ozone Generator is also great for other applications such as removing bacteria and infectants from fruits & vegetables as well as extending shelf-life expectancy for fresh produce, and even removing odors.

SpecsFeatures
500 mg/hr ozone output (concentration of 4.2 g/m3 [.33%] at 2 LPM flow rateIntegrated air pump + ozone tubing + diffusers
2 LPM air flow rate with integrated air pumpAdjustable ozone output
3/4 PSI air pump pressure (approx. 1.5 feet of water depth)Selectable timers
1/4” barbed connection for inlet/outletRechargeable Air Dryer

More information on the OZX-300 Air Dryer is here.

More information on the OZX-300 Ozone Generator is here.

Measuring Dissolved Ozone in Chloronated Water

How to dilute sample to extend test range

Is there a way to measure dissolved ozone (0.5 to 3.0 ppm) in water with a high chlorine level. Yes, there is a way to to this.

First, be sure to use the Indigo Method.

The Indigo Method

“References: Bader H. and J. Hoigné, “Determination of Ozone in Water by the Indigo Method,” Water Research Vol. 15, pp. 449-456, 1981. APHA Standard Methods, 23rd ed., Method 4500-03 B-1997.

With the indigo method, indigo trisulfonate dye immediately reacts with ozone. The color of the blue dye decreases in intensity in proportion to the amount of ozone present in the sample. The test reagent is formulated with malonic acid to prevent interference from up to at least 10 ppm chlorine. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) O3.The CHEMetrics Indigo Ozone Vacu-vials® Kit employs an innovative “self-zeroing” feature to eliminate the need to generate a reagent blank. Each Vacu-vials® ampoule is measured before and after being snapped in sample. The change in color intensity, measured in absorbance, between reagent in the unsnapped and snapped ampoule is used to determine the ozone concentration of the sample.”

The indigo test kit can be purchased at the Oxidation Technologies web store. Indigo test kit.

The I-2022 Dissolved Ozone Meter is designed for accurately and quickly measuring ozone in water levels from 0 – 0.75 ppm. This device uses the Indigo Method for testing. This method is based on the colorization of dye by ozone, where the loss of color is directly proportional to the ozone concentration. The results are then displayed on the monitor in ppm (mg/L) of ozone present.

This device has LED display for precise and accurate readout and is easy to use. Once the I-2022 has been purchased the cost per test is only $1.02.

Next, use the dilute method to measure higher concentrations of ozone.


The Indigo snap method test kits will measure up to 0.75 so a dilute procedure can be used to derive an accurate measurement. The video uses the K-7404 kit which used the DPT method, but the principle can be applied to the Indigo kit as well.


Feel free to contact Oxidation Technolgies with any ozone questions.

Journey to the Center of a DBD Ozone Generating Plasma Cell.


Photo by Devansh.sharma – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36462262

A Not-So-Lazy River Circuit Analogy

Our journey to the center of an ozone generating plasma cell begins with a ride around a not-so-lazy river. Perhaps you’ve enjoyed floating in a raft around a lazy river at a hotel or water park. Picture these rafts as electrons flowing through a circuit. Moving magnetic fields are pushing electrons through the fluid media of metal atoms. They follow the circular paths of circuits like rafts floating around and around the lazy river ride. A pump continually pushes the water along.

Unlike the continuous flow in one direction of direct current (DC), alternating current continuously reverses the flow of electrons. Imagine the lazy river model constantly changing direction. The electrons first flow one way, slow, reverse, and rush the other way. The electric supply to your home goes through 60 cycles per second. Our lazy river model begins to defy imagination at this rate of change. You can think of electrons as virtually weightless, unlike all the water and rafts in a lazy river. Electrons are quite capable of reversing direction very quickly.

Energy Transfer
The flow of electrons through a wire might be apparent from the glow of a light bulb. As electrons squeeze through a resistive part of the circuit, the wire heats up transferring energy to heat and light. Other things are happening outside the wire. Hold a compass near a wire in which current is flowing, and the needle is pulled away from North. Whenever an electric current flows, a magnetic field develops around the wire. Stop the flow, and the field collapses.

Wrap this conductor into a coil, and the magnetic field is intensified. Add an iron core, and a magnet is born. A continuous flow supports a useful magnetic field, capable of pushing the rotor of a motor or the lever of a switch. Again we notice a transfer of energy, this time from electric current flow to some mechanical motion. Energy transfer doesn’t stop there.

Energy transfer is reversed in a magnetic field when the electric current stops. When current stops or reverses, the magnetic field collapses. The collapsing magnetic field gives electrons a push in the coiled conductor. This phenomena opens up the possibility of generating a flow of electrons in a second circuit that is isolated from the first circuit. It also introduces radio waves. Imagine a second lazy river next to yours. It doesn’t have a pump, so the water is still. But imagine an invisible force generated by the flowing of the first river pushing the water along in the second. Such a transfer of energy happens with the flow of electrons and is essential to ozone production within a plasma cell.

A Dam in the River: The Plasma Cell Heart

A dam in the lazy river brings the rafts to a halt, but build two Olympic sized pools on either side of the dam. Now the river continues to flow awhile even with a dam because it takes time to fill the pool. Depending on the strength of the pump, the water flows for a while as one pool gets a little deeper while the other is drawn down. If you can pump one pool much deeper than the other, a significant stress builds on the dam. Our lazy river could get exciting if the dam were to burst. We are getting closer to the center of a plasma cell.

In your mind you need to convert the Olympic sized swimming pools in our lazy river circuit to large flat pieces of metal. In the electron world, the dam between these two plates is an insulator, a material that prevents the flow of electrons. Electrons pile up on one side while they are drawn down on the other side. Electrons are the negative charge. Pulling electrons away leaves one side with deficiency of electrons: a positive charge. If the insulator were breached, a powerful surge of electrons would create a dramatic spark. It would be equivalent to the deep swimming pool emptying to the shallow one in milliseconds.

It is here at the “dam” where we discover the center of a plasma cell. When the distance between the two electrically charged plates is made smaller, the electrostatic forces between them grow exponentially. In other words, a thinner dam makes a more powerful electrostatic field. But a thin dam is also weaker and more susceptible to failure. The goal is a material that is strong and a good electrical insulator. Ceramic and quartz serve well for this purpose. But without some oxygen present in this high electrical pressure environment, we only have a capacitor and no ozone production.

We need to introduce one more element: a thin layer of oxygen as part of the “electron dam.” We can think of the dam as a sandwich of two insulators with a very thin slice of oxygen between them. When oxygen is exposed to the tremendous electrostatic forces found within this space between highly charged surfaces, the oxygen molecules are pulled apart and re-combine in highly energized forms. I would like to zoom in for a closer look at this sliver of space.

A Peak Inside the World Between Dielectric Barriers

Photographs of this space between the two insulators reveals what appears to be a mini, but intense electrical storm. We are used to thinking about lightning bolts jumping from one charged conductor to another, but in this electrostatic microcosm, the mini “bolts of lightning” are jumping from the surface of one insulator to the surface of the second insulator. In the presence of the strong electric field, the molecules within the insulator become polarized. This means that the electrons are pulled by the positive electrode toward one end of the molecule that make up the insulator. Even though electrons are unable to flow through the insulator, the polarization sets up “pools” of electrons on the surface. We call the insulating material used in in this application a “dielectric.” The type of ozone generator we are entering here is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generator.

Exactly what is happening in this high electrical pressure world between dielectric barriers has been and continues to be a topic of considerable research and study. Already around 1897, John Townsend discovered that the strong electric field in the oxygen space between dielectrics initiates electron avalanches. A free electron among the oxygen atoms accelerates very quickly because it is attracted to the positively charged plate (anode). When it reaches a high enough velocity and collides with an oxygen molecule, it knocks off another electron, turning the molecule into a positively charged ion. This ion begins to move in the opposite direction toward the negatively charged plate (cathode) while the two electrons further accelerate toward the anode and collide with more oxygen molecules.  As the growing electron cloud races toward the anode, it leaves a trail of positively charged ions in its wake.

This trail of ions and free electrons is conductive, and allows for a discharge of electric current through the oxygen. The discharge is the flow of electrons that has gathered on the surface of the dielectric towards the positive charge on the other side of the oxygen gap. It is this discharge of energy that breaks the oxygen molecule bonds releasing free oxygen atoms. Some re-combine with single atoms, and others combine with pairs to form highly energized ozone molecules made of three oxygen atoms. The world here at the center of an ozone generator is a stormy one swarming with surges of electrons.

DBD: A Specialized Form of Corona Discharge

The discharge is similar to a spark, but not nearly as hot. It does not result in a discharge of the electrodes. Only small areas of the inside surface of the dielectric discharge with each electron avalanche. The strong electric field induces a secondary, high voltage mini-circuit within the oxygen gap. Thousands of these discharges can be repeated as long as the voltage supplied to the anode and cathode continues to increase.

The power supply for an ozone generator alternates this electric field thousands of time each second. When the pressure (voltage) rises through the threshold that sets off electron avalanches, the discharge storm erupts. Since the electric field changes thousands of times each second, the oxygen gap experiences thousands of storms each second. The optimal frequency and voltage depends on the gap size and oxygen pressure. The electronics controlling the voltage need to be tuned to match the particular dielectric arrangement for optimal ozone production.

The benefits of setting off thousands of mini discharges in a space between insulators instead of simply allowing a spark to ark between the positive and negative electrodes are the following: 1) an arc generates so much heat that it melts most materials. Such an arc is useful for welding or plasma torches, but would destroy an ozone generator. 2) Ozone production is minimal with an arc. Most of the energy is converted to heat and the heat destroys ozone. 3) Producing many small discharges from dielectric surfaces within a strong electrical field stays cooler and yields more ozone.

This form of ozone generation is called “Dielectric Barrier Discharge” (DBD). DBD belongs to a category of corona discharge. Corona discharge was observed by ancient sailors on the masts of their ships as a flare of luminous plasma at the tips of the mast and other pointed parts of their ship when the atmosphere is highly charged. The phenomenon occurs when strong electrostatic forces concentrate at sharp points and break down air to form plasma. You can observe this phenomena with an electrostatic generator in a dark room. Many of the small ozone generators sold for home use rely on a form of corona discharge from sharp points. Higher quantities of high concentration ozone used in commercial applications often use DBD type ozone generators.

Ozone can also be produced with ultraviolet light and radiation bombardment. The ozone layer which protects earth from harmful radiation is produced by ultraviolet light with a wavelength less than 200 nm. Ultraviolet light between about 200 and 300 nm destroys ozone. The ozone layer is maintained with a balance of ozone generation and destruction with ultraviolet light. Ozone can be created in water with electrolysis. Passing an electric current through water breaks the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Using specific electrodes results in oxygen combining to form ozone.

Here at Oxidation Technologies we do not build DBD plasma cells, but we rely on companies who continue to research and build quality generators for a wide range of applications. We specialize in integrating the right ozone generators into specific applications. Dissolving ozone into water requires ozone generators that make higher concentrations of ozone. Many applications can utilize low pressure or even slight vacuum to minimize the danger of ozone leaks. Sometimes controlling precise levels of low ozone concentrations can best be attained with an ultraviolet ozone generator. Whatever your application, we have the expertise to integrate the right ozone generator to your process.

Ozone: Science & Engineering  The Journal of the International Ozone Association  Volume 41, 2019 – Issue 1Ozone Synthesis and Decomposition in Oxygen-Fed Pulsed DBD System: Effect of Ozone Concentration, Power Density, and Residence Time Sławomir Jodzis &Tobiasz Barczyński From https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01919512.2018.1506317>

IOP Science publication: Dielectric barrier discharges: progress on plasma sources and on the understanding of regimes and single filaments From <https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6595/aa6426>

Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics  Electron impact dissociation in oxygen B Eliasson and U Kogelschatz Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular PhysicsVolume 19Number 8

From <https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3700/19/8/018>

Free Use article from IOP Science:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230926959_Ozone_Synthesis_From_Oxygen_in_Dielectric_Barrier_Discharges/link/56ddd42608aedf2bf0c86b95/download

Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 23, No. 1, March 2003 ( 2003) Inûited Reûiew Dielectric-barrier Discharges: Their History, Discharge Physics, and Industrial Applications Ulrich Kogelschatz1 Receiûed April 5, 2002; reûised May 7, 2002 https://www3.nd.edu/~sst/teaching/AME60637/reading/2003_PCPP_Kogelschatz_dbd_review.pdf

Very clear and graphic explanation https://www.plasma-school.org/files/lectures/2016/Guaitella16.pdf

https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/0963-0252/page/Foundations-of-low-temperature-plasmas-and-their-applications

Impact of Ozone on Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

Every day, pharmaceutical companies around the world produce tons of products that people use to enhance their quality of life. This realm of products has been lumped into a category called “Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products,” (PPCPs). These products and drugs do not disappear, but are found increasingly in the water being discharged from wastewater treatment plants. The impact that this cocktail of chemicals has on the animals and people dependent on this water is not fully understood, but the evidence is clear that it is not good.

Ozone is a powerful oxidant capable of breaking troublesome molecules. What impact does ozone have on PPCPs? A recent laboratory study published in the engineering journal of the International Ozone Association (IOA) exposed water containing thirty seven different PPCPs to investigate the degradability of these chemicals.

Eight of the thirty five were very quickly degraded to or below their limit of detection with a dissolved ozone dose of 1ppm within 5 minutes. Five more were degraded with a dissolved ozone dose of 2ppm within 5 minutes. Five more required at least 10 minutes of retention time at 2 ppm.

The other half of the thirty five required more time and a higher dose of ozone. Three of them, (DEET, Ketoprophen, and Primidone) did not degrade below their limit of detection even when exposed to 9ppm of dissolved ozone for 15 minutes.

Ozone clearly has a significant role to play with PPCP cleanup. Further study is sure to discover ways to optimize the process and make it more effective. Oxidation Technologies  specializes in integrating ozone into the specific process of diverse customers. We continue to pursue a better understanding of ozone use in a variety of applications.

Source:

N. Evelin Paucar, Ilho Kim, Hiroaki Tanaka & Chikashi Sato (2019) Ozonetreatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater, Ozone: Science & Engineering, 41:1, 3-16, DOI: 10.1080/01919512.2018.1482456