Ozone dosage =the amount of ozone applied to the water
Dissolved ozone =the amount of ozone measured in the water
Ozone dosage into water does not equal dissolved ozone in water. Ozone is generated as gas and must be dissolved into water in many applications. As ozone is only partially soluble in water mechanical mixing equipment is necessary to dissolve ozone into water efficiently. There are no systems that will achieve 100% mass transfer of ozone gas into water, therefore the dissolved ozone levels will always be lower than the applied ozone, or ozone dosage rate.
Final measured dissolved ozone levels in water will be affected by water quality contamination, water temperature, and the efficiency of your mechanical mixing equipment used to dissolve ozone into water.
To achieve a specific, targeted dissolved ozone level the oxidizable compounds in the water must be overcome along with any other ozone scavenging conditions, also keep in mind the ozone half-life may come into play depending upon the duration of time used to achieve your target dissolved ozone level.
The quantity of ozone you attempt to put into the water will always exceed the amount of ozone actually absorbed into the solution.
Due to the low solubility rate of ozone gas into a liquid and due to system inefficiencies, a portion of the ozone off-gases without being absorbed into the water. This off-gassed ozone must then be vented outside or destroyed with an ozone destruct unit.
The ratio of ozone gas dosage to the final dissolved level is commonly referred to as the mass transfer rate. This refers to the amount of ozone gas that was measured as dissolved vs the ozone dosage rate. This is commonly referred to as a percentage. Such as a 90% mass transfer rate of ozone would indicate that 90% of the ozone dosage, 1ppm for example, would result in 0.9 ppm of ozone measured in water.
Different methods of ozone injection will achieve different dissolved ozone levels into water due to different efficiencies and mass transfer of ozone into water. A few examples of these options are shown in the images below:
“References: Bader H. and J. Hoigné, “Determination of Ozone in Water by the Indigo Method,” Water Research Vol. 15, pp. 449-456, 1981. APHA Standard Methods, 23rd ed., Method 4500-03 B-1997.
With the indigo method, indigo trisulfonate dye immediately reacts with ozone. The color of the blue dye decreases in intensity in proportion to the amount of ozone present in the sample. The test reagent is formulated with malonic acid to prevent interference from up to at least 10 ppm chlorine. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) O3.The CHEMetrics Indigo Ozone Vacu-vials® Kit employs an innovative “self-zeroing” feature to eliminate the need to generate a reagent blank. Each Vacu-vials® ampoule is measured before and after being snapped in sample. The change in color intensity, measured in absorbance, between reagent in the unsnapped and snapped ampoule is used to determine the ozone concentration of the sample.”
The indigo test kit can be purchased at the Oxidation Technologies web store. Indigo test kit.
The I-2022 Dissolved Ozone Meter is designed for accurately and quickly measuring ozone in water levels from 0 – 0.75 ppm. This device uses the Indigo Method for testing. This method is based on the colorization of dye by ozone, where the loss of color is directly proportional to the ozone concentration. The results are then displayed on the monitor in ppm (mg/L) of ozone present.
This device has LED display for precise and accurate readout and is easy to use. Once the I-2022 has been purchased the cost per test is only $1.02.
Next, use the dilute method to measure higher concentrations of ozone.
The Indigo snap method test kits will measure up to 0.75 so a dilute procedure can be used to derive an accurate measurement. The video uses the K-7404 kit which used the DPT method, but the principle can be applied to the Indigo kit as well.
Feel free to contact Oxidation Technolgies with any ozone questions.
Let’s go back to basics. Below is a simple read for the beginner:
What is ozone? Ozone is active or supercharged oxygen. It occurs naturally high in earth’s atmosphere and protects us from sun’s cancer causing UV rays. The ozone that we use is generated with eletrical and mechanical equipment. The chemical formula of ozone is O3.
What are some uses of ozone? Some common uses are: drinking water purification, wastewater treatment, deodorizing of smells, cooling tower water management, swimming pool water management, effluent treatment and industrial oxidation processes. Ozone Applications
What are some valuable properties of ozone? The most important property of ozone is disinfection. Ozone is therefore used for water treatment. Ozone also decolorizes (removal of color) and deodorizes (removal of odour).
How is ozone manufactured and can it be stored like oxygen?Ozone is manufactured from air or oxygen. There is very little or no ozone near earth’s surface. The ozone protective layer is miles above the earth and can not be accessed. Ozone cannot be stored like oxygen. Because of the very high reactivity of ozone, it is very unstable. Ozone decomposes to oxygen rapidly in minutes. Therefore ozone has to be generated at site and used immediately. Ozone Production link
Did You know?
Ozone is used in floriculture to decolorize roses to make them white.
Ozone gas is pumped into food and vegetable packing to protect themduring transportation.
Ozone is used to preserve Beer Hops to keep them fresh during storage.
Ozone is used for remediation after major fire accidents to remove the smell of fire. This is known as fire restoration.
Ozone is extensively used in Hydroponics (growing vegetables without soil).
There are nearly 2800 toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke and ozoneis effective against more than 80% of those chemicals that have beenidentified so far.
Has ozone been used to treat drinking water elsewhere? Ozone has been used in hundreds of water treatment plants around Europe (France, Germany, UK), USA, and in Asian countries (like China, Singapore). Ozone in drinking water
How long has ozone been known and used? Ozone has been known since 1800s and been used in little applications before the 80s but more extensively in the 90s. Today ozone use has become very common. History Of Ozone link
Does ozone has any odor? Ozone has a slightly sweet smell at very low concentrations but as the concentration increases, it becomes irritating. It has a fishy smell. During thunderstorms you get the pleasant smell of ozone. You get the smell of ozone in a Xerox shop and behind television sets.
Will ozone kill bacteria? Or will it stop bacteria multiplication? Ozone kills bacteria and is known to be the most effective bactericide on earth. There is no possibility of bacteria developing resistance with ozone.
What about virus? Ozone will deactivate virus by attacking the protein of the virus. Virus is a chemical entity and not a living organism. But it has DNAs that replicate fast. Ozone attacks this DNA. Ozone has been proven to act against SARS virus, against AIDS virus and also Swine fl u Virus. But Commercial applications have yet to begin for these applications.
As you can see, the ozone generator price is only a portion of the entire picture when choosing an ozone generator. Keep in mind if ozone is used for water treatment ozone concentration will be important to improve ozone solubility into water. This factor, along with long-term reliability of the equipment, maintenance, and power consumption should be considered.
As the cannabis industry grows in the USA the interest in the use of
ozone in this industry grows. There are many applications and
potential uses for ozone in the cannabis industry, both in the
growing and processing of cannabis. However, there are also many
myths and potential misunderstandings on the use of ozone in this
industry. This article will serve as a general guide to help
understand the practical uses of ozone in this industry.
Irrigation water treatment:
Cannabis can be grown in many ways, in each, whether indoor, outdoor, hydroponic, or other, all require irrigation water for growing the plants. This water must be clean, pure and free of pathogenic bacteria for efficient plant growth. Ozone can be used to treat general well water for removal of harmful minerals and bacteria. See link HERE for additional details on these applications. Ozone can also be used to treat other incoming water sources that may have harmful pathogens, or generally low dissolved oxygen levels due to organics in water.
Ozone is commonly
used to treat well water, and city water sources for many water
treatment issues. The use of ozone in water treatment is common, and
is one of the oldest and most frequent uses for ozone in the world.
Using the same systems and processes that would be used in other
agriculture applications, or drinking water applications is
applicable in the cannabis industry with no major changes to the
systems or technologies.
As ozone is more soluble into water than oxygen, and ozone will revert to oxygen naturally in water, adding ozone to your water will naturally increase dissolved oxygen levels in that water. Increased dissolved oxygen levels in water are always beneficial for irrigation systems.
Ozone can be dissolved into water to be used for surface sanitation in rooms, equipment, and even plants if required. Ozone gas is produced, dissolved into water at high levels and used as a sanitizer. Ozone increases the ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) in the water to a level that if any of the water comes into contact with pathogens on the surface being treated.
application with ozone is common in the food processing industry.
Many studies have been done on the use of ozone in these applications
for food processing, and there are many ozone system currently in use
for these applications. The same systems and processes used in the
food processing industry can also be used in the horticulture and
further processing of the cannabis plant.
We have provided
ozone systems for surface sanitation applications by themselves. We
have also supplied ozone systems capable of treating both incoming
irrigation water and providing the higher dissolved ozone levels
necessary for surface sanitation in one package with one ozone
generation system, but 2 separate ozone mixing systems to dissolve
ozone in water in two separate water streams and control
Ozone in water for
surface sanitation is safe, there are no harmful side-effects to
humans or plants from ozone in water. However, if done incorrectly
ozone in water can be off-gassed from water and enter the gas phase.
Ozone in the gas phase can be harmful to both humans and plants. In
this application ensure ozone is implemented and operated properly.
Likely the oldest
and traditionally the most common use of ozone in the cannabis
growing industry, is odor control. Ozone is extremely effective at
reducing organic odors and is used in many applications for odor
reduction/elimination. During the growing, cultivation, and
processing of the cannibis plant odors are created that can be
potentially offensive. In applications where neighbors are close by
or there may be aversions to any fugitive odors ozone can be used in
the air exhaust of the building to eliminate odors effectively.
The final harvested
product must meet specific mold, and bacteria standards to be sold to
the end-user for consumption. There are state standards and good
manufacturing processes to adhere to on mold and bacteria counts on
final products. Ozone can be used to provide disinfection for this
final product to met the most stringent mold and bacteria standards
in your state.
Ozone gas can be used in rooms to inactivate pathogens. Ozone gas can be used after aqueous ozone is used for surface sanitation to ensure all pathogens in the room are destroyed before starting a new crop, or between processing batches of harvested product. The room must be empty of plants and people, ozone gas can be pumped into the room at levels that would be harmful to plant, people and all pathogens. Ozone monitors can be used to control ozone levels and ensure the room is safe for re-entry when complete.
Exampe of an ozone system:
Below is an image of an ozone system that can be used for both water treatment and surface sanitation applications in one package.
This system has a larger 30 gallon contact tank to treat high water flow-rates of incoming water with low ozone dosages for disinfection purposes. The 30-gallon tank will provide sufficient contact time with ozone to achieve disinfection with ozone. An ORP meter is used to measure and control ozone levels in water.
The smaller ozone mixing tank will provide lower water flow rates with a high dissolved ozone level (>2.0 ppm) to be used for surface sanitation applications. A dissolved ozone meter is used to measure and control ozone levels in water real-time.
Below is an image of an ozone injection system that will dissolve ozone into water, but also includes ozone gas outlets to be used for room disinfection, odor control, or other ozone gas applications. An HMI touchscreen panel offers control of the ozone outputs via timers, and ozone monitors measuring ozone levels in each location.
Below is a diagram of how an ozone system can be configured for many various applications in the cannabis industry in one single package.
Ozone is produced via oxygen under pressure. This ozone gas is controlled and can be sent to various rooms with ozone monitors in each room. These ozone monitors will control ozone levels to proper levels for the specific application.
Ozone gas can be delivered to the venturi injector that is a part of the ozone mixing tank. This ozone in water can be plumbed directly to a point of use with a high level of ozone for sanitation applications. OR, can pass through a UV light that will safely revert all ozone back to oxygen prior to using in an irrigation system where ozone in water may be undesirable.
This system also shows an ozone destruct unit for ozone off-gas. This off-gassed ozone is reverted safely back to oxygen. This oxygen can be bubbled into an irrigation system to increase dissolved oxygen levels slightly.
As you can see, there are a wide variety of potential uses of ozone in the cannabis industry. Due to this wide variety, there is some misinformation and some myths about the use of ozone. If you would like to learn how ozone could benefit your facility, please contact our application engineers. We would be glad to help.
Ozone has been used to disinfect water for over 100 years. Many water treatment plants throughout the world not only use ozone to disinfect water, but also remove organic compounds and improve taste and smell. Ozone is an attractive alternative to chemical treatment because it is very effective and does not introduce any new chemicals to the water you use. The drawback has been a high initial cost and equipment maintenance. Advances in technology have brought ozone within the reach of the average home owner, and small scale reliable ozone generating equipment has stood the test of time. Our ozone water treatment(WT) system is simple to operate and monitor to ensure that it is working properly to provide safe water. Here are five routine, simple, and quick checks of your ozone WT system to maintain your peace of mind.
You will know your water’s staying clean when …
1) The desiccant air dryer feels warm.
Put your hand near the top of the air dryer. Does it feel warm? If it is cold, something is not right. The air dryer contains two cylinders of desiccant material. It is the same stuff you find in little packets sometimes placed in the packaging of sensitive electronic equipment. This material absorbs moisture from the air. Eventually it becomes saturated with water and no longer absorbs moisture. The water is removed by heating the desiccant material. The desiccant air dryer is designed to cycle back and forth between two cylinders filled with desiccant material. When air is flowing through one to remove the moisture, the other is being heated to drive off the moisture. If the outside of the box feels warm, this is a good sign that all is well.
2) The moisture indicator is blue.
The moisture indicator provides additional assurance that your ozone equipment is getting dry air. This little viewer contains crystals that change color in the presence of moisture. When it is blue, you can be sure the air feeding your ozone generator is dry. If it is not blue, it could mean that the dryer is not working properly, the crystals have been contaminated in some way, or the crystals need to be replaced. Don’t become alarmed right away. The dryer requires a good six hours of uninterrupted operation to stabilize. If the location is excessively warm or humid, the dryer will not perform well.
If you continue to suspect that the air dryer is not performing as it should after a number of checks over the course of a few days, try to determine what has failed. If the dryer feels warm but the moisture indicator is not blue, it may be that the moisture indicator is contaminated. Newmoisture indicatorsare available from our store. It is also possible that the desiccant material has been contaminated or worn out. In that case, you will need one of ourdesiccant refill kits. If the air dryer feels cold, check the power connections. We also sell replacement heater tubesthat contain the desiccant. If you are unable to verify that the air dryer is working, it may be time for a new dryer.
The only part of the treatment system that is active 24/7 is the desiccant air dryer. All the other components wait until the well pump turns on.
3) The little silver ball in the flowmeter jumps up and hovers when the well pump turns on. (Newer models have a digital reading of air flow)
The flowmeter is a simple device telling us how much gas is flowing through the system. Air is pulled through the air dryer and ozone generator by suction produced by the black plastic venturi. Suction is created by the flow of water through the venturi. When the well pump turns on, water rushes through a narrow passage in the venturi. With sufficient flow, the water pressure differential between the input and output of the venturi creates air suction. Air flows through the tubing as it is pulled into the venturi. The little silver ball is lifted by this gas flow giving a visual indication that air is flowing through the system.
If no air flow is created when the water pump turns on, remove the ozone tube connected to the black venturi. Place your finger over the hole to see if suction is created. As long as the pump is running, the venturi should create air suction. If there is no suction, remove the check valve that is threaded directly to the venturi. Clear out any rust or mineral deposits. If the pump stops, water will squirt from this port, so try to open enough faucets to keep the pump running. If you are unsuccessful with getting air suction from the venturi, it could mean that the well pump is not pumping enough water through the venturi to create suction, or the venturi has worn out.
If you do have air suction at the venturi, but still no air flow indicated on your flowmeter, it may be that a check valve needs to be replaced or something else is blocking the flow. The source of blockage needs to be found and cleared before ozone generator will operate. The ozone generator turns on when it senses a sufficient flow of air. Most ozone generators will have a blue light indicating that the ozone generator is running.
4) You can smell ozone from the off-gas vent
But can you be sure that that sufficient ozone is being generated to disinfect your water? When your system is operating properly, left-over ozone that does not get dissolved into the water is vented from the top of your contact tank. If you remove the tubing from the off-gas vent, you should smell ozone when the system is running. It might take a little while for enough ozone gas to build up for venting, but when it accumulates at the top of the tank, it will be vented, often in short spurts.
5) Testing your water for dissolved ozone levels.
Ozone is a more powerful disinfectant than Chlorine. It destroys, inactivates, and prevents growth of bacteria and viruses with very low levels of dissolved ozone in water. As little as .3 ppm dissolved ozone for contact time of 5 minutes provides a 5 log (100,000 bacteria reduced to 1, 99.999% reduction) reduction of most bacteria and viruses. Contaminants are exposed to much higher levels of ozone when it passes through the venturi. By the time the water leaves the contact tank, any contaminants have been in contact with ozone long enough for most of them to be destroyed. The ozone has done its job and very little is left in the water that is distributed to your home. Enough will be left over to prevent growth. As little as 0.01 ppm will prevent growth. These low levels of ozone leaving your contact tank can be measured with our low costK-7404 dissolved ozone test kit. You don’t want much ozone left in your water. Too much ozone left over in the water can lead to irritating ozone off-gas at the point of use.
Legionnaires’ disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by breathing mist from water containing the bacteria. The bacteria thrive in the warm water found in whirlpool spas, cooling towers, fountains, humidifiers, produce misters, etc. Symptoms of Legionnaires’ disease include high fever, a cough, and sometimes muscle aches and headaches.
The rate of reported cases has increased over 5 fold since 2000, and deadly outbreaks continue today unabated. The reason or reasons behind this increase are unclear at this point, but ozone has proven to be effective at controlling the bacteria in water. Whether the bacteria are flourishing within a 100 gallon fountain or a 1000 ton cooling tower, the engineers at Oxidation Technologies will maintain will provide the precise dose of ozone needed for safe water.
Ozone that is safely dissolved into water has a tremendous disinfectant power and simply turns back into oxygen after expending its energy. As little as 0.01 ppm (1 part ozone to 100 million parts water) prevents the growth of these bacteria. We provide cost effective equipment and long term service to ensure safe and effective use of ozone for bacteria control.
The equipment needed to dissolve low levels of ozone into water can be very cost effective and sustainable for many water systems. A home well-water system uses one of the smallest ozone generators we sell to dissolve enough ozone when the well pump runs to disinfect all the water needed in a typical home. As a general rule of thumb for industrial cooling towers, five grams of ozone per hour is needed for every 100 tons of tower cooling capacity.
The 50 g/h ozone generator needed to supply a 1000 ton cooling tower will also require an oxygen concentrator, venturi, ORP controller, and sometimes a booster pump. The oxygen concentrator and controller comes in a complete package with our OXG systems. The following study conducted by Mazzei reports a one year payback for ozone use due to lower chemical and cleaning costs.
We also provide the convenience of a quarterly preventative maintenance plan to make sure the system continues to perform at peak efficiency and avoid costly repairs due to neglected maintenance. We often work with an independent water company that provides routine testing for the customer to make sure water quality remains good and inform us of any problems.
One useful way to measure ozone concentration is to state how many parts of ozone are present per million parts of gas (normally air.) We can smell ozone when it is present in the air in as low as .01 parts per million (10 parts per billion). At .1 ppm levels in ambient air, ozone becomes uncomfortable. Industrial ozone generators can produce ozone in concentrations well over 100,000 parts per million. Usually these larger concentrations are expressed in % by weight. 100,000 ppm could be written as 100,000/1,000,000 which is 10/100 or 10%. Because the weight of an ozone molecule is heavier than the other gas molecules making up air, the actual measurement is 13.7 %wt. Parts per million is useful for many applications, but sometimes it is handy to use parts per billion for very low concentrations. The general principle is to reduce the number of zeros when communicating this information. We do the same thing when measuring distance with millimeters or kilometers etc. A good starting point to get a feel for ozone concentration is to become familiar with ppm and %wt. We provide definitions for other common units and links for conversions and calculators at our calculations page.
A second dimension of ozone measurement is the actual quantity of ozone being produced or used. The production of smaller generators is measured in grams per hour. The production of the largest generators is measured in pounds per day. 1 lb/day ozone = 18.89 g/hr ozone. The smallest ozone generators we sell generate less than a half of a gram per hour. That would be about a hundredth of a pound per day which is an awkward figure to use. “Grams per hour” happens to be practical for describing the output of lower production machines. The larger ones we sell generate 1000 grams per hour or 50 pounds per day. Pounds per day happens to be practical for larger machines. A drinking water treatment plant in Texas uses up to 42,900 pounds of ozone per day (over 200 tons). One lightning storm can generate over 200 tons of ozone.
A third dimension of measurement for any gas application is flow rate. When generating ozone, flow rate will affect the ozone concentration. With a given ozone production rate (for example, 200 grams per hour), lower flow rates will result in higher ozone concentrations. Higher flow rates will result in lower concentrations. One useful calculator helps determine the amount of ozone needed to supply a particular concentration at a particular flow rate. For example, if you need a concentration of 5% by weight and have an oxygen flow of 10 LPM, you will need a generator capable of 43 grams per hour. If the flow doubles to 20 LPM, the concentration is cut in half.
People working with municipal water treatment get used to working with larger units such as pounds per day and high ozone concentrations. People working with sanitation equipment and other mid-scale applications get used to thinking in terms of grams per hour and the whole spectrum of ozone concentration measurements. Those involved in small household applications and generators are more familiar with milligrams per hour and low concentrations. Our system integration experts need to be familiar with the whole spectrum of measurements. Familiarity and precision in application grows with years and diversity of experience. Our online calculator provides a powerful tool for an efficient and effective integration of ozone into your application.
Oxidation Technologies provides equipment, engineering expertise, and service to a wide range of applications and ozone demands. Our service requires flexibility in thinking and a familiarity with the full spectrum of ozone concentrations. We build ozone systems to integrate into your existing industrial process. Every situation has a multitude of variables that will affect the performance.
Give us a call. We’d love to help you harness the power of ozone for your application. 515-635-5854
Long term, reliable operation of an ozone system depends largely on clean, dry air. Unless you have liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxygen source, your ozone will be generated from the oxygen found in ambient air. The air around us contains dust particles, and lots of water vapor. One cubic meter of air on a hot humid day can contain up to 30 grams of water. Even a gram of water vapor in a cubic meter of air (dew point -5 deg. F) will inevitably lead to failure of the ozone generating equipment. We need to get another 9/10 of a gram of water out to keep an ozone generator in good shape.
Water content in air is most commonly measured in terms of dew point. Dew point is the temperature at which water vapor condenses into liquid. When a mass of air cools down to very cold temperatures before water condenses, it indicates that there is not much water vapor in the air. The graph shows that dew point is not linear in relation to the amount of water vapor in the air. It is easy to see that the water content gets close to zero at about -50 degrees F. Large ozone systems operate with feed gas between -100 and -60.
An air filter and desiccant air dryer is often used to clean and dry the air for a small air-fed ozone system. The desiccant material absorbs moisture from the air as it passes through. When the desiccant becomes saturated, air flow is switched to a second chamber of desiccant material while heat is applied to the first to drive the water from the material in the first chamber. The processes switches back and forth, effectively dries the air to a dewpoint of -40 deg F. This is a cost effective level of dryness for small ozone systems.
Ozone systems that use an oxygen concentrator are able to take even more water out of the feed gas. The first line of defense will be the air filter for the air coming into the air compressor used for your ozone system. This filter will remove particles of dust that eventually wear out the compressor as well. The compression process also serves to remove much of the water when the hot compressed air cools forming water droplets that can be removed with a coalescing filter. A compressor with a means to cool the compressed air can bring the dew point from 60 to 40 degrees. This compressed air is forced through the zeolite sieve beds of and oxygen concentrator. The zeolite quickly absorbs the Nitrogen and remaining water vapor. As the oxygen concentrator cycles, the Nitrogen and water vapor is exhausted, leaving 93% oxygen with a dew point from -60 to -100 degrees F. The oxygen concentrator works well as long as water vapor does not build up or condense in the sieve beds. They will not work well when the compressed air has a dew point above 40 degrees or the sieve material absorbs moisture during down time.
Oxidation Technologies provides sales, service, and system design of gas preparation equipment for ozone systems.
Efficient and accurate ozone production requires accurate measurements of gas flow rates. The rota-meter style flow-meter is a simple, robust, and accurate way to measure the flow of gas or liquid. The only moving part is a metal ball (float) within a tapered transparent tube. As flow rate increases, the ball rises. Try out this quick, one-question quiz to test your ability to read this instrument.
One limitation to this device is its inability to factor in gas pressure in a direct reading. Gas under pressure is squeezed together so more gas is able to flow past the ball than it reads. Some flow-meters are calibrated for a specific gas pressure. Such meters are accurate only at that pressure. This limitation is easily overcome with a simple calculation. You can calculate an accurate flow rate at any pressure when you know the gas pressure of the gas flowing through the meter. How did you do on the quiz? If you haven’t tried it yet, check out our calculator page for better chance of getting it right.