Ozone used for treatment of arthritis

Ozone use in medical applications is gaining awareness here in the USA.  While ozone has been used in medical clinics and dental offices worldwide for some time, the growth of ozone use in the USA has been slower to gain traction.

The great article below about a study using ozone vs traditional steroid shots is a great example of ozone use in medical applications for the treatment of arthritis in joints.

Knee Arthritis: Steroid Shots May Not Help Long-Term, Ozone Injections Promising

Read full story HERE

Millions of aging Americans are plagued by arthritic knees, and two new studies offer insight into what might — or might not — help curb the condition.

Both studies were presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology’s annual meeting in San Francisco.

One study found that a popular therapy, steroid drug injections, do nothing to slow progression of osteoarthritis in the knee. This type of treatment is common, but has never been specifically tested, and there are concerns about its safety, according to a team led by Dr. Tim McAlindon, chief of rheumatology at Tufts Medical Center in Boston.

His team tracked outcomes for 140 people — mainly overweight white women — with knee arthritis who averaged 58 years of age. The patients received either injections of the steroid triamcinolone hexacetonide, or placebo injections of saline, every three months for two years.

While the steroid injections were deemed to be safe, they did not improve long-term outcomes of pain, mobility or joint damage compared to the placebo, the Boston researchers reported.

But two experts who reviewed the findings said that steroid shots may still have a place in knee arthritis care.

“It is widely accepted that these injections do not alter the natural progression of knee osteoarthritis, but are used for symptom reduction,” noted Dr. Neil Roth, an orthopedic surgeon at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

In fact, he said, there is no injection that halts progression of knee osteoarthritis. Presently, however, steroid shots “are helpful in alleviating the pain associated with arthritis inflammation,” Roth said.

Dr. Calin Moucha is chief of adult reconstruction and joint replacement surgery at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. He agreed with Roth that “steroid injections should continue to be used for temporary symptom relief in patients with moderate to severe osteoarthritis who are trying to postpone knee replacement surgery.”

Moucha also believes that healthy weight loss and “low-impact aerobic physical activity” can help ease the discomfort of knee arthritis.

The Boston researchers agreed that steroid shots may have a place as a short-term method of pain relief. “Additionally, the dose was fairly small [40 milligrams], and we might have seen greater effects with a higher strength formulation,” McAlindon said in a meeting news release.

Other treatments for arthritic knees may be on the horizon, however. A second, small study found that injections of ozone gas into the joint reduced pain and improved movement for people with knee osteoarthritis.

The Brazilian trial included 63 patients who received injections of ozone gas into the knee and a control group of 35 who received injections of air. Previous research has suggested that ozone, a naturally occurring gas, may help reduce inflammation.

The patients who received the ozone gas showed significant improvements in pain, physical function, overall health and quality of life, compared to those in the control group, the researchers said. However, there were no major differences between the two groups in the amount of time it took them to stand up, walk, return and sit.

Researchers Carlos Cesar Lopes de Jesus and Virginia Fernandes Moca Trevisani, of Federal University of Sao Paulo’s Paulista School of Medicine, believe that the ozone injections may ease pain for patients and delay the need for joint replacement surgery.

However, they added that further research is need to confirm these findings and to determine whether ozone could offer an alternative treatment.

Roth agreed that the research is promising but preliminary.

Read full story HERE

Metals removal using ozone

Ozone can do more than disinfection and oxidation of chemical contaminates.  Ozone can also be used as a flocculant to aid in filtration of metals from water.  It is common to use ozone to remove iron and manganese from water, but what about other metals?

The paper shown below provides confirmation that ozone has the ability to also remove Lead, Copper, Arsenic, Zinc, and Cadmium from water.  Using ozone for per-treatment and filtration these metals were all removed from water at varying degrees dependent upon ozone dosage rate and filtration efficiency.

This is one more application for ozone in drinking water applications, and potentially for groundwater remediation applications.

Read abstract for paper below, link to purchase entire paper here

Pilot Testing Of Trace Metals Removal With Ozone At Snowbird Ski Resort

Author Eva Nieminski, Doug Evans
Year 1995
Location Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 297 – 309
DOI 10.1080/01919519508547537

Ozone Science and Engineering Journal Cover

A pilot study at the Snowbird Ski Resort in Utah evaluated feasibility of ozonation replacing chlorine and sulfur dioxide for oxidation of iron and manganese in groundwater. Ozonation also was tested for the removal of lead and cadmium, occurring at concentrations exceeding drinking water Maximum Contaminant Levels. An ozone dose of 2 mg/L, contacted with the water for 1 minute prior to filtration, was selected as optimum for iron and manganese removal from 0.4 mg/L and 40 microg/L, respectively, to below detection limits. Lead, copper, and arsenic also were removed to below detection limits. The removal of cadmium and zinc improved when ozone was contacted for 10 minutes. With metals removal through ozonation and filtration, taste and odor enhancement also were reported.

 

Ozone used for COD Reduction in Wastewater

Ozone use for wastewater treatment has gained popularity here in the USA in the last few years due to improved ozone equipment, and higher costs for competitive chemicals.  An article below outlines an implementation of ozone and UV for COD reduction.  However reductions in COD, BOD, and TOC were all realized.  For information on ozone use for wastewater contact our application engineers today!

Read story below or at this link HERE:

Ozone-Based Process for Industrial Wastewater COD Reduction

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate for industrial wastewater is higher than 95 percent, when using high ozone (oxidants) dosages, according to a study by ESCO International.

The company, which specializes in UV, ozone and advanced oxidation wastewater treatment processes for industrial, municipal and commercial use, says ozone-based advanced oxidation technology can help lower capital and operating expenses.

Its pilot study looked at ozone-based advanced oxidation processes — cost-effective alternatives to traditional chemicaltreatment for COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal that do not produce sludge.

The results indicate that the primary control parameters for COD and BOD removal using ozone based-AOP are dosage, contact time and pH, the company says. As the ozone (oxidants) dose is increased, carbon-carbon single bonds are attacked and broken, resulting in a loss of COD, BOD and TOC. At stoichiometric ozone (oxidants) dosages, COD removal rate is higher than 95 percent.

Read full story HERE

Ozone used to treat hotel pillows to reduce allergens

A high end hotel in India is implementing the use of ozone to treat not only linens and hotel rooms, but also the pillows used in guest rooms.  As pillows are re-used and can absorb allergens that may bother the next person to lay their had on that pillow, the hotel desired a method to remove any potential allergens from the pillow.  They chose ozone as this technology.

Read full story HERE or below:

The Imperial introduces allergy-free ozone treated pillows in guest rooms

he Imperial, New Delhi recently added yet another feather in its cap by disinfecting and deodorising guest room pillows and linen with Ozone Treatment, a cutting edge technology towards providing microbe free linen to their guests while they soak in its historic and iconic luxury. 

In order to achieve high standards of hygiene and safety of linen in the guest rooms, specially designed, equipment based on ozonation technology for disinfection has been brought in from Europe which disinfects with forced ventilation in an environment saturated with the oxidizing gas ozone. O3 (ozone) which is a natural gas with a great disinfecting power that has a strong action on bacteria, virus, moulds, fungus and mites and a deodorant action. This not only eliminates these microorganisms and deodorizes but also makes pillows/duvets an extremely hostile environment for dust, mites and parasites. It leaves on linen at an immediate sensation of freshness and cleanliness. 

Vijay Wanchoo, Sr. Executive VP and GM, The Imperial New Delhi expressed his views on the launch of this proud initiative saying, “Moving towards providing a completely safe environment, an enjoyable stay, a sybaritic rest of the senses and an enhanced experience, The Imperial has launched the Sanipill Ozone Treatment program. This is to significantly reduce the impact of potential irritants allowing guests to rest comfortably, sleep better and awake refreshed. Our hotel is treating the pillows, duvets and all linen articles by ozonation process, which is an effective way of disinfecting and deodorising them as they are generally loaded with various micro-organisms because of prolonged usage by guests.” 

The effectiveness of the Sanipill ozoniser as per the claims by the manufacturer of the equipment in bringing significant reduction in the total microbial load has been verified by the in-house Microbiology Lab of The Imperial. Detailed microbiological studies were conducted for the untreated and treated pillows and linen. The results of subsequent experiments showed significant reduction of microorganisms post treatment of the pillows and linen with the Sanipill Ozoniser, supporting the ‘strong disinfecting effect of ozone treatment’.

In most of the luxurious hotels, only changing of pillowcases is done on a regular basis. The pillow with freshly laundered cover is used by subsequent guests using the same room, leading to risk of infection and transmission of various kinds of virus, bacteria, mould and fungi. In such a situation, washing and chemical-sanification of ‘pillows’ is done very seldom. The Imperial has therefore initiated a revolutionary technology to provide its guests absolute safety from cross contamination and infection. n and infection. 

Ozone for air treatment

Produce Pure ozone with double quartz technology

The HTU-500 Ozone Generator is an ozone generator that offers the ability to produce pure ozone.  Using a double quartz corona cell the HTU-500 can produce ozone from oxygen without ever allowing the oxygen feed-gas and produced ozone to touch any stainless steel or other metal surfaces.  Only Pure Teflon, PVDF (Kynar), and Quartz materials are used in the plumbing and production of ozone in the HTU-500 Ozone Generator.

lab ozone generator
HTU-500 Ozone Generator

Ozone Production from Oxygen:

O3  Output        
O2 Flow       O3 Concentration
0.5 g/hr 0.25 LPM 2.4 %
0.8 g/hr 0.5 LPM 1.9 %
0.9 g/hr 0.75 LPM 0.9 %
4.5 g/hr 2.7 LPM 1.9 %
1.0 g/hr 1.0 LPM 1.2 %

Key Features:

  • Double Quartz Dielectric – pure ozone production
  • Very flexible design, can accomodate most operation modes
  • Produce ozone from dry air or oxygen
  • Integrated 10-position switch to adjust ozone output
  • Can operate under vacuum or pressure
  • Wall mount, or bench-mount
  • Detachable power chord
  • Easy to install and operate
  • Powder coated Al. cabinet

For larger ozone productions with the double glass technology review our RMU-DG line of ozone generators.  These are rack mount ozone generators that use the same double glass dielectric technology to produce up to 40 g/hr of ozone, or ozone at up to 6% by weight.

RMU16-DG4 Ozone Generator
RMU16-DG4 Ozone Generator offers the ability to produce pure ozone from oxygen.

Indoor air quality monitoring – why it matters.

What is indoor air quality?

Indoor air quality (IAQ) broadly refers to the environmental characteristics inside buildings that may affect human health, comfort, or work performance. We monitor IAQ because we spend approximately 90% of our time breathing “indoor air”. Unlike outdoor air, indoor air is recycled continuously causing it to trap and build up pollutants. IAQ characteristics include the concentrations of pollutants in indoor air, as well as air temperature and humidity.

Why does indoor air quality matter?

Poor IAQ contributes to both short and long term health issues which can lead to decreased productivity, absenteeism, and possible litigation. Typical symptoms associated with poor indoor air quality include eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, nausea, dizziness, and fatigue. In some cases exposure to indoor air pollution can lead to acute and chronic respiratory illnesses including asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia, systemic hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Legionnaires’ disease, and humidifier fever. See below for a table of major sources and potential health effects of indoor air pollution.

In some countries indoor air quality can be worse than outdoor air quality, especially when we consider the amount of time people spend indoors versus outdoors.

Factors contributing to poor indoor air quality

Gas and respirable particulates in the air are the primary sources that contribute to poor IAQ. Sources can include inadequate ventilation, poorly maintained HVAC systems, wood and coal stoves, non-vented gas heaters, environmental tobacco smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, building materials, carpeting, furniture, maintenance products, solvents, cleaning supplies etc. The actual concentrations of these pollutants can also be amplified by other external factors including poor ventilation, humidity, and temperature.

Typical applications for IAQ monitoring

  • IAQ complaint investigation and analysis
  • HVAC system performance monitoring
  • Air quality engineering analysis
  • Mould investigation and remediation
  • Health and comfort assessment
  • Airport lounges, shopping malls, offices
  • Schools and kindergartens
  • Hospitals and elderly care facilities

Major Indoor Air Pollutants

Major Sources and Potential Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants
Sensor Pollutant Major Sources Potential Health Effects*
CO2 Carbon Dioxide Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), Excessive Building Occupancy and Inadequate Ventilation Fatigue; Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation; Headaches; Chest Discomfort; Respiratory Tract Symptoms
CO Carbon Monoxide Non-vented or Malfunctioning
Gas Appliances, Wood and Coal Stoves, Tobacco Smoke and Vehicle Exhaust Emissions
Headache, Nausea, Angina, Impaired Vision and Mental Functioning, Fatal at High Concentrations
COPM Environmental
Tobacco Smoke
Cigarettes, Cigars and Pipes Respiratory Irritation, Bronchitis and Pneumonia in Children; Emphysema, Lung Cancer and Heart Disease
VOC Organic Chemicals Aerosol Sprays, Solvents, Glues,
Cleaning Agents, Pesticides, Paints, Moth Repellents, Air Fresheners, Dry cleaned Clothing and Treated Water
Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation;
Headaches; Loss of Coordination; Damage to Liver, Kidney and Brain; Various Types of Cancer
O3 Ozone Ground Level Ozone Entering Indoors; Malfunctioning Air Treatment Systems; and Office Photocopiers and Printers Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation; Coughing; Chest Discomfort; Reduced Lung Function; Shortness of Breath
NO2 Nitrogen Oxides Non-vented or Malfunctioning
Gas Appliances and Vehicle Exhaust Emissions
Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation; Increased Respiratory Infections in Children
PM TSP (total suspended particulates)PM10 (thoracic fraction ≤10 μm)PM2.5 (respirable fraction ≤2.5 μm)PM1 (particles ≤1.0 μm) Cigarettes, Wood and Coal Stoves, Fireplaces, Aerosol Sprays and House Dust Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation;
Increased Susceptibility to
Respiratory Infections and
Bronchitis; Lung Cancer
CHCO Formaldehyde Pressed Wood Products e.g.
plywood and MDF; Furnishings; Wallpaper; Durable Press Fabrics
Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation; Headache; Allergic Reactions; Cancer
Other Sources and Potential Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants
Biological Agents
(Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Animal Dander, Dust Mites)
House Dust; Pets; Bedding; Poorly Maintained Air Conditioners, Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers; Wet or Moist Structures; Furnishings Allergic Reactions; Asthma;
Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation;
Humidifier Fever, Influenza
and Other Infectious Diseases
Asbestos Damaged or Deteriorating Insulation, Fireproofing and Acoustical Materials Asbestosis, Lung Cancer,
Mesothelioma and Other Cancers
Lead Sanding or Open-Flame Burning
of Lead Paint; House Dust
Nerve and Brain Damage,
Particularly in Children; Anemia;
Kidney Damage; Growth Retardation
Radon Soil Under Buildings,
Some Earth-Derived Construction
Materials and Groundwater
Lung Cancer

Indoor air quality standards

As a result of increased awareness of the health risks of poor air indoors, governments are tightening up standards and enforcing monitoring on building owners. Initially the standards apply to public places and office buildings. In the future it is feasible that standards could apply to newly built residential buildings.

The trend towards tighter regulation is particularly evident in Asia where people spend a large amount of time indoors in air conditioned environments. In recent years Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong have all taken steps to better protect human health indoors.

Methods for assessing IAQ

There are two main methods for assessing the quality of indoor air:

  • Real-time (continuous) measurements. Real-time monitors can be used for detection of pollutant sources and provide information on the variation of pollutant levels throughout the day. Aeroqual is one such manufacturer of equipment for real-time IAQ monitoring.
  • Integrated sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis. Integrated samples, normally obtained during the 8 working-hours for offices, can provide information on the total exposure level of a particular pollutant.

Regardless of the choice of the method, it is very important to ensure proper operating of the equipment and handling of the samples, as well as strict quality assurance procedures including equipment calibrations and operation in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Find out more about the Aeroqual range of indoor air quality monitors here

Ozone Resistant Materials

THE BASICS

  • Ozone is highly corrosive, poor quality materials will cause ozone leaks
  • Materials will react different to “Wet” and “Dry” ozone
  • Ozone concentrations will effect material compatibility
  • Many times, the best method to determine compatibility is to perform your own testing
Good Materials

  • Teflon (PTFE, FEP, PFA)
  • 316 Stainless Steel
  • Viton
  • Silicone
  • CPVC
Bad Materials

  • Buna-N (Nitrile)
  • Nylon
  • Steel (mild)
  • Cast Iron
  • Acetal
  • Natural Rubber

More info on Material Compatibility with ozone here

This is a short list. The bad materials listed are really bad with ozone use and should never be used under any circumstances.  The good materials are very good and can be used with no consideration for ozone concentrations or type of use.  Everything not listed is somewhere in the middle.  Many charts will give some subjective (inaccurate) rating to other materials.  However, only you can determine if the material in question will work for your specific application.  Read below to learn how to determine if your material of construction is a good choice.

More info on Material Resistance to Ozone can be found at the articles below:

 Durability test results of construction and process materials exposed to liquid and gas phase ozone.

Ozone resistance chart from EcoSEnsors – tech tip

Ozone is an oxidant. Therefore is will oxidize materials just as oxygen will naturally oxidize materials in our world around us. Only ozone as a more powerful oxidizer will oxidize all materials faster.

When determining if a material can be used with ozone consider how that material holds to normal oxidation outdoors in fresh air. Or if using with water, how that does material hold up to chlorine in city water. If the material breaks down over time, ozone will only speed that up by 100 times or more.

Consider your ozone level. Higher ozone levels will oxidize materials faster. Many industrial ozone systems are producing ozone gas at 5% or greater in concentration. Ozone water systems are providing 2 ppm of ozone in water or higher. If your system uses much lower levels of ozone, then considering less quality materials is an option. However, if these parameters are in your design, then certainly only the good materials listed above should be used.

Consider if you are exposing this component to dry ozone gas, ozone dissolved in water, or ozone off-gas (wet ozone gas), as lower quality components will react to each differently.

Gasket oxized by ozone
O-ring and gaskets not resistant to ozone in water

corona cell made from poor quality materials
Corona cell was made of poor quality materials

Utah’s water best in the nation – due to ozone in drinking water

OREM, UTAH (ABC 4 UTAH) – In Utah, water is big business. Especially when it comes to processing it.  For 11 straight years the Central Utah Water Conservancy District has been recognized as being one of the leading plants in its industry.
According to the Partnership for Safe Water the water processed at the CUWCD is the best in the nation.
David Pitcher the Assistant General Manager said, “This process improvement project has made it so that we can provide reliable water that could come out of the tap that most people take for granted.”
The water from Mother Earth and Old Man Winter goes through a series of processes including conventional sedimentation.
“It has been steered in multiple stages decreasing energy that would allow it to develop a particle that will settle out,” said Lead Operator Joe Huish.
“Ozone is a really effective way of getting rid of all those tastes and odors as well as some other benefits that ozone for us,” said Huish. ” For us what it does is it reacts with organics in the water. It does a lot for taste and odors for us and makes us able to make really good tasting water.”
American Water Works Association acknowledged the great tasting water by making it the best in the Intermountain Section Conference, which includes Utah and parts of Idaho.
“We have given ourselves all the tools that there are pretty much to drink the water,” said Huish.
The plant that produces the best water in the state was renamed after the man who took time to teach each one of his employees one thing Huish said, “No complacency ever is our main rule.”
Thursday, the plant was renamed the Don A. Christiansen Regional Water Treatment Plant.
Gene Shawcroft the plants general manager said, “It has received a number of awards that other plants are striving to achieve and that recognizes and symbolizes to us the effort Don made over a career, to make sure we had sufficient water, to make sure we had safe drinking water.”
Some bosses at the plant say none of this could be possible without their employees.
“We are very blessed to have workers, operators who their main objective is to provide safe reliable water that is public health,” said Pitcher.
CUWCD will head to Chicago to participate in the American Water Works Association National Conference water taste testing. The contest will be held in June of 2016.

Ozone used to “Detoxify Environment” in Washington DC

This week the US House of Representatives new Speaker of the House, Paul Ryan, starts his new job.  Along with starting his new job he get’s a new office.  The office recently vacated by John Boehner, a smoker.  Interestingly, Paul Ryan mentioned the use of ozone machines to “detoxify the environment” to clear the air.  While great news that the use of Ozone Machines goes mainstream, I do find it humorous that Paul Ryan is trying to Detoxify the Environment in Washington DC.  In my opinion it will take much more than ozone to detoxify the environment there!

Read more on this story from the NY Times below and follow this link.

WASHINGTON — There are many things Americans cannot yet know about Speaker Paul D. Ryan’s plans for his fancy new digs on Capitol Hill. Dark curtains or sheers? Memorabilia from the 2012 presidential campaign or his first House race in 1998? Will he hang a poster of his favorite band, Rage Against the Machine?

One thing is known: He wants to get rid of the smoke left behind by his predecessor, John A. Boehner. “You know when you ever go to a hotel room or get a rental car that has been smoked in? That’s what this smells like,” Mr. Ryan said in an interview on NBC’s “Meet the Press” on Sunday in reference to the speaker’s suite, which is of perhaps even greater interest to Mr. Ryan because he sleeps in his office.

 

Mr. Ryan said he would most likely rely on an “ozone machine” to “detoxify the environment” of the palatial speaker’s office, which he apparently views as about as habitable as a smelly motel off the interstate in 1978. Deeper cleaning and a carpet change would come later, and taxpayers would be expected to foot the bill.

This story even made the front page of the Drudge Report over the weekend.  See image below, click on image for larger view:

Even Paul Ryan advocates the use of ozone machines!
the use of Ozone Machines made the main stream!

Ozone for Air Treatment

Degradation of Toxic Substances in wastewater using ozone

Ozone can oxidize any substance that is not in it’s complete oxidized state.  Therefore most toxic substances found in water can be oxidized by ozone for safe and cost effective removal without dangerous chemical by-products.

Ozone use for Wastewater Treatment has many uses and a wide variety of applications. Common ozone wastewater treatment applications:

  • Wastewater disinfection
  • Color removal from water
  • Sludge reduction
  • Odor removal from wastewater
  • Degradation of toxic substances

Common toxic substances oxidized by ozone in water:

  • Phenol
  • Benzene
  • Cyanide
  • Naphthalene
  • Olefins
  • Pesticides
  • Herbicides
  • Ammonia
  • Pentachlorophenol
  • Ethane
  • Atrazine
  • MTBE
  • Toluene

This is just a short list of common contaminated ozone is used to oxidize from water.  We can provide specific information and references for each of these, along with other information as required.  Please contact our office for more details.

Micropollutants, or Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC’s) removal with ozone is gaining the most attention of all ozone and wastewater treatment applications. Ozone has proven to be the most effective oxidant at removing Micropollutant and EDC’s from watewater either alone or used in conjunction with AOP processes.

The Lingo:

  • Micropollutants: substances that are found in relatively low concentrations that are difficult or impossible to remove with conventional treatment technologies.
  • Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDC’s): substances which impact the hormone functions of animals and humans
    • Naturally or industrially produced
    • disrupt growth, development or reproduction
    • influence the behavior of humans and animals
  • Endocrine System: consists of glands and hormones that regulates the development, growth, reproduction and the behavior of animals as well as humans.
  • Personal Care Products: fragrances, sunscreens, cleaning products, etc
  • EDC’s, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are groups of emerging contaminants

Build-up of EDC’s in wastewater is of primary concern for plants that discharge into lakes, or rivers where water may move slow and allow levels to compound over time. In some locations this same body of water is used as a supply for drinking water plants. The Great Lakes region in the United States is a great example of a body of water that is used for wastewater discharge and drinking water supply that could have a build-up of EDC’s in the water over time.

Ozone has been tested and proven effective in removing many EDC’s in wastwater treatment systems. The following is a short list of EDC’s ozone has been proven effective for:

  • Testosterone
  • Androstenedione
  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol
  • Estriol
  • Estrone
  • Ethynylestradiol
  • Carbamazepine
  • Bezafibrate
  • Diclofenac
  • Ibuprofen
  • Sulfamethoxazole

For a complete list, details on each EDC, or information about how ozone could be implemented as a pilot test, or full scale system contact our application engineers today.