Ozone Generator Quality

We get many questions about the quality and price point of various ozone generators.  These are fair questions as there are many price points for an ozone generator with the same basic g/hr or mg/hr ratings.  Here we will try to lay out the biggest differences in ozone generators.

For a complete ozone generator buyers guide click HERE

The purposes of this article we will be looking only at corona discharge ozone generators producing ozone from dry air or oxygen.  We will not be evaluating UV ozone generators or ambient air ozone generators used for air treatment as these both have very limited application.

Corona Cell Materials

The heart of any ozone generator is the corona cell.  This is where the corona discharge occurs and produces the ozone.  Materials such as aluminum, tin (tin foil), low-grade stainless steel and plastics can be used to lower cost.  This is typically the case for Chinese made ozone generators.  These materials will be attached by the oxidation of ozone over time, and create leaks or a failed corona cell.

As these low-quality materials degrade they will contaminate the oxygen/ozone stream and allow impurities into the ozone stream.  Keep this in mind for water treatment or medical ozone applications.

higher quality ozone generators will use high-grade stainless steel (316L), quartz glass, ceramic, and pure Teflon.  These ozone resistant materials will withstand ozone and create a longer life to the ozone generator.

In 6-months of operation or very light use, there is no difference in corona cell materials.  Long term, after 6-months, or heavy use reliability of the ozone generator will be greatly affected. Costs will be higher to manufacture corona cells from higher quality materials.  However, the benefits are worth the cost.

Transformer

To produce ozone a high voltage spark is required.  This spark is occurring at all times and is an end-point ground.  A high voltage transformer is used to create these high voltages and sparks.  This transformer must be reliable and capable of handling the torment of shorting through a dielectric to ground at a high frequency for hours at a time.  We have found the best success with open coil resonant transformers, or oil cooled transformers.  Simple end-point transformers are less expensive and are commonly used in lower cost ozone generators, however, these will fail sooner.

Electronic Driver Boards

To produce ozone a high-frequency spark is used.  Electronic components must be used to create this high frequency.  Most commonly basic Mosfet transistors are used to switch DC voltage to create the high frequency.  Lower cost ozone generators will use one transistor to create the high frequency.  HIgher-end ozone generators will implement a series of transistors to split the workload.  

Circuit protection

In the event, the corona cell is contaminated, or adverse conditions exist the ozone generator driver board should turn OFF ozone production so that the transformer does not short directly to ground and fail.  Many lower cost ozone generators do not implement this circuit protection.  Those that do, may not react quick enough to protect the electronic equipment.  

Cooling fans

Ozone generators create heat.  That is a non-negotiable fact.  Many low-end ozone generators use small cooling fans that do not move sufficient air, and some use no cooling fan at all. 

Ozone Concentration

Ozone generators are normally rated with mg/hr or g/hr.  How efficiently this ozone is produced is a measurement of the ozone concentration, normally measured in % by weight, g/m3 or gamma.  It is important that the ozone generator you purchase produces the most g/hr at the highest possible ozone concentration.  Higher concentration ozone will consume less oxygen, dissolve into water more efficiently, and simply work better for every possible application.

 

These are a few of the most important components to review on an ozone generator.  Of course, low-quality ozone generators serve a purpose, they meet a low price point, and allow a user to determine if ozone is right for them.  However, do not be confused, a $100 ozone generator is not a lifetime investment.  And as with everything, higher quality is going to cost more.

Ozone oxidation of MTBE and ETBE evaluated

Ozone is commonly used to remove MTBE from groundwater and drinking water when MTBE is found in high levels.  Ozone is a viable option as ozone oxidizes MTBE rapidly from water, and completely after by-products are also oxidized.   Below paper gives great details on this process.

MTBE molecule
MTBE

Oxidation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE) by Ozone and Combined Ozone/Hydrogen Peroxide

Courtesy of:  Ozone: Science & Engineering  The Journal of the International Ozone Association

Ozone science and engineering
IOA Journal

Authors: N. Karpel Vel Leitner ,A.-L. Papailhou ,J.-P. Croué ,J. Peyrot M. Doré

Received 21 Jul 1993, Accepted 12 Oct 1993, Published online: 23 Jul 2008

Abstract

The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O3/H2O2. Batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH°-radical with MTBE and ETBE [kOH°/ETBE/kOH°/MTBE = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE and ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds.

Link to access full paper below:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01919519408552379

Become a member of the IOA and receive the Ozone Science & Engineering Journal in the mail, and full online access:

http://www.ioa-pag.org/membership/

MTBE Removal Success

Ozone has proven to be successful at oxidizing MTBE in water.  Ozone rapidly oxidizes MTBE, however, TBA (tert-Butyl alcohol) is formed as a by-product of this oxidation.  TBA is then oxidized by ozone, but at a slower rate than MTBE.  See chart directly below for a great example:

MTBE removal from water with ozone create TBA

Image from: Chemical Oxidation of MTBE and TBA

The chart above shows a great example of MTBE removal in water with only MTBE and TBA data shown.  As MTBE was oxidized, TBA was created at the same rate.  After MTBE oxidation was nearly complete TBA oxidation started to occur, but at a slower rate.  TBA will also be completely oxidized from water with ozone over time.  Ozone remains a great option for oxidation due to the rapid oxidation of MTBE and complete destruction of both MTBE and TBA with no harmful by-products left in the water.

Additional Technical Documents:

Below is a series of papers and documents outlining practical and laboratory success in the elimination of MTBE from water using ozone, or ozone AOP processes.

Click Thumbnails below for details on equipment we offer for groundwater remediation

ORK-Series Ozone Systems  ORT-Series Ozone Trailer Systems   ORC-Series Ozone Systems  OXS-Series Ozone Systems

Ozone system service – water filtration system with ozone

Recently Oxid tech service techs spent some time servicing a few older ozone systems used for livestock drinking water.  Both of these systems are used specifically for iron removal from well water on dairy farms.

ozone filtration system
Ozone filtration system for livestock – 200 GPM ozone and filtration system
ozone removes iron from livestock water
Ozone filtration system for 6,000 head dairy farm – 600 GPM ozone and filtration system

While these systems are older, only basic maintenance is required.  We visit these sites quarterly to change filters, calibrate sensors, and perform basic maintenance.  If you are looking for service on your ozone system, call our office, we may be coming to your area soon!

Ozone is an effective and chemical-free solution to iron removal from water.  Ozone will efficiently oxidize iron from water to a filterable state.  Backwasheable sand filters can be used to efficiently capture iron and discharge to drain safely.  A proper ozone system will effectively remove iron, manganese and many other minerals from water reliably with no use of chemicals.

Ozone Injection and filtration system
Ozone filtration system diagram

Click here to learn more about ozone use for well water treatment

Ozone can be used to efficiently remove many undesirable contaminants from water.  If your well water is less than ideal for your livestock, or even for your household, we may be able to help.  Ozone is commonly used to remove the following:

Ozone systems require no additional chemicals.  Ozone is produced from ambient air and introduced into the water.  Bachwashable filters (if necessary for your water) remove the undesirable contaminates from your water with no consumables.

ozone filtration system
Ozone system with filtration

Ozone filtration systems can be compact and simple.  Image above shows a basic ozone system with filtration.  Systems can also be built for large water flows as shown above.  Whatever your need, if your unhappy with your water quality, give us a call today.  We can help.

 

Ozone Remediation System Install

We just finished retrofitting a shed and installing an ozone remediation system in Wyoming.  An Ozone Cabinet was used in a small shed to clean up gasoline contaminates in the water table.  

Wooden shed to protect ozone remediation system
Small shed to house the ozone remediation system
Ozone remediation cabinet
Ozone remediation cabinet is installed inside this protective shed

This was a great install and very clean when finished.  Small vent fans are used in this shed to remove excess heat.  Ozone delivery lines were stubbed up directly inside this shed in the concrete pad making this a very secure install.  A custom 2 lb/day ozone cabinet is used to provide ozone to up to 20 well outputs in this situation.

Ozone is a great solution to removing MTBE, TBA, BTEX, and other common gasoline contaminates from groundwater.  Ozone can be used in-situ (as in this example) with minimal site disturbance and a very small footprint.

ozone remediation cabinet
2 lb/day ozone remediation cabinet

Learn more about ozone used for groundwater remediation HERE

Click these links to learn more about our ozone remediation cabinets and other ozone systems for groundwater remediation applications.

Aeroqual Ozone Detectors

 

aeroqual ozone monitor
Aeroqual Ozone Detectors can detect many environmental air quality gasses beyond ozone

Aeroqual ozone detectors are the perfect solution when high accuracy, low-level detection of ozone is required.  Aeroqual provides ozone monitors in handheld or fixed mount versions that measure ozone as low as 1 ppb with reliable and consistent accuracy.  The Aeroqual ozone detector is the only sensor based technology that can accurately measure ozone at low levels, every other technology uses the much more expensive UV based photometer technology.  Aeroqual allows for small footprint and economical cost.

Aeroqual ozone detectors can also be used to measure a wide variety of other gasses.  Sensor heads can be purchased and placed on the Aeroqual Ozone Monitor to measure those gasses with only a short warm-up period between gas detection.  Accessories, such as a carry case, remote mount kit, and wall bracket are also available to further add to the function of the Aeroqual Ozone Detector.

Not sure what device is right for you?  Give a call, we would love to help.

 

 

Improve your livestock drinking water supply

As livestock producers in the USA grow in size, so do the water demands.  It is not always possible, and certainly not cost effective to bring municipal or rural water supplies to the farm, therefore drilling wells to supply water for on-site livestock is the best, and many times only option.  However, if your water supply is less than ideal, this causes potential issues.

We can help.  Ozone is used by many municipalities around the USA to treat drinking water.  As the technology improves we can now bring this same quality of water to your livestock operation cost effectively.  

Drinking Water Disinfection

Ozone and H2O2 can be used to disinfect drinking water on your farm.  Both well water and rural water can benefit from water disinfection.  By reducing bacteria in water cows will be healthier and water will taste better.  Drinkers will grow less bacteria, algae, and require less cleaning.  Livestock will drink more water when treated with ozone or H2O2.

How it works

Well Water

Well water commonly requires treatment to remove minerals or pathogens, even perfect well water may have no bacteria in it when pumped from the ground.  However, without any added disinfection this water can grow bacteria in it as soon as it is flowing through your pipeline and in your tanks.  This bacteria can spread illness, and make for generally unhealthy water in the drinkers.  Bacteria can easily be oxidized by ozone or H2O2, just as it is normally oxidized by chlorine in municipal water supplies.  However, using ozone or H2O2, dissolved oxygen levels in the water will increase and create healthier water without the added chloride contamination.

Common well water uses for ozone

Benefit of Ozone

Ozone can improve water quality to your livestock.  Animals will drink more water if it tastes better and looks better, cows that drink more water will eat more food, therefore, gain weight faster,  and are healthier animals overall.

Reducing bacteria in water will improve herd health and reduce maintenance on drinkers throughout your farm.

Using ozone as opposed to chlorine or H2O2 will save costs as there is no chemicals to purchase.  Ozone equipment is a one-time purchase with only minimal maintenance costs.

 

Ozone is dissolved into water using an ozone injection system.  The size of ozone system will be based upon your total water flow rate used.  Total water flow may be based on other applications for ozone on your farm or ranch.  See diagram of ozone injection system below for information on how ozone is dissolved into water.

ozone water for livestock production
Typical ozone injection system

Ozone therapy banned in Malaysia

Ozone therapy has finally been gaining some mainstream traffic worldwide in the last few years.  In fact, at recent IOA conferences, and in the Ozone Journal medical applications of ozone has finally been given, time, space and honest evaluation.

However, the country of Malaysia has recently banned ozone in medical applications by blanketly banning “ozone therapy”.

See link below for full new stories on this topic:

http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/05/07/ozone-therapy-a-danger-but-ministry-will-take-a-look-again/

https://cilisos.my/what-is-ozone-therapy-and-why-is-malaysia-completely-banning-it/

ozone therapy
Banner at clinic promoting ozone therapy in Malaysia

This ban is getting reconsidered due to requests in the country:

BALIK PULAU: The Health Ministry will do an indepth study on “ozone therapy” after the Ozone Medical Practitioners Association Malaysia asked that the ban on the treatment be reconsidered.

Deputy Health Minister Datuk Seri Dr Hilmi Yahaya said the ministry would take another look although the treatment has been found to be dangerous and offers no benefit to patients.

“Ozone therapy is a dangerous treatment as it has a molecule that is unstable and can produce air bubbles in the blood,” he told reporters after attending the Jom Cari Siput contest here yesterday.
Read more at http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/05/07/ozone-therapy-a-danger-but-ministry-will-take-a-look-again/#oybwiUFcSDrMw4QG.99

Ozone Groundwater Remediation Case Studies

Case studies using ozone for groundwater remediation.  Below images are provided by Remediation Equipment Services (RES) using ozone as In-situ chemical oxidation.

Ozone for MTBE and TBA removal from water
Results from periodic injections to treat “Hot” spots. Monitoring wells were converted to temporary injection wells.
Ozone removes MTBE groundwater using IN-Situ chemical oxidation
Full-scale system treating multiple aquifers, shallow unsaturated and deep bedrock
Full scale system removing MTBE from groundwater
Full-scale system injection system treating bedrock aquifer
ozone removes MTBE from groundwater
Full-scale ozone injection system injecting into multiple zones

Results courtesy of RES:

Contact RES at:

Remediation Equipment & Services

155 Railroad Plaza, Suite A, Royersford, PA 19468

Gary.sheridan@remediationequip.com

Follow link below for more information on using ozone for groundwater remediation:

https://www.oxidationtech.com/applications/groundwater-remediation.html

 

Ozone Remediation Systems for Groundwater Remediation.

Oxidation Technologies provides turnkey Ozone Remediation Systems custom built for your specific project.  We have extensive experience as a system integrator of remediation systems implementing ozone, AOP, and other technologies with necessary.  We provide systems in the following configurations
Trailer SystemsOzone Trailer systems house all equipment for safe and portable systems that are completely automated.  Trailer systems can be provided using our custom steel trailers that are a step above the standard cargo trailer you have seen in the past.

Cabinet SystemsCabinet systems can be provided as a stand-alone system, and a panel system built for environmentally protected areas.  These systems are compact, and cost effective.

Modular Ozone System KitsModular ozone systems are provided as kit assemblies that include all the components necessary for a complete remediation system.  These systems can be installed inside the customer’s existing structure, trailer, cargo container, or shed.

Shed mounted Systems– Ozone systems can be housed in custom built sheds that will perform well, and match the aesthetics of the area the system is placed in.  Shed systems can be provided as turn-key solutions by Oxidation Tech or use the Modular Ozone System Kits.

Cargo Container Systems– Ozone systems installed in cargo containers can be shipped easily, even internationally.  Large ozone systems can be provided and shipped without great expense.  Very well protected and functional.  Cargo Container systems can be provided as turn-key solutions by Oxidation Tech or use the Modular Ozone System Kits.

 

Please contact our office for help determining what system configuration may be right for you.  Or for a quote on your existing project.

1,4-Dioxane removal from water using ozone

1,4-dioxane
1,4-Dioxane molecule

 

The presence of 1,4-Dioxane in water sources has gained the attention of regulating bodies and the media recently.  Recent advances in analytical tools have given confirmation of the presence of 1,4-Dioxane in groundwater and drinking water sources, along with common sources or related contaminates.   This, along with the better understanding of the potential health effects of 1,4-Dioxane has created additional pressure at the removal of this VOC from drinking water and potentially contaminated groundwater sites.

 

Ozone may be the answer or a part of the answer to 1,4-Dioxane removal in water.  Our recent bench tests found complete elimination of 1,4-Dioxane in water within 10 minutes of treatment time.  Adding H2O2 to achieve the Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) showed no benefit to ozone alone.

 

Test #1 used ozone gas at 6% by weight bubbled through a column of water
 
    Test #1 Test #1 Test #1
VOC 0 min 10 Minutes 20 Minutes 30 Minutes
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 66 ppb 4.5 ppb 0.31 ppb 0.28 ppb
1,1-Dichloroethane 380 ppb 50 ppb 9.6 ppb 0.93 ppb
1,1-Dichloroethene 140 ppb 0.34 ppb 0.34 ppb 0.34 ppb
1,4-Dioxane 120 ppb NR NR NR
Tetrachloroethene 140 ppb 0.12 ppb 0.12 ppb 0.12 ppb
Trichloroethene 410 ppb 0.22 ppb 0.22 ppb 0.22 ppb

Link to full results HERE

 

This data showed complete elimination of 1,4-Dioxane with ozone, along with reduction of all other VOC’s present in water at the same time.  

We have provided equipment for removal of VOC’s and specifically 1,4-Dioxane from drinking water and contaminated groundwater plumes.  Should you require specific equipment recommendations, we would be pleased to discuss this with you.  

 

Links to equipment we offer below:

 

For additional information on the removal of 1,4-Dioxane from water below is a list of technical papers and research we have compiled.

 

Technical Documents:

 

 

Updated VMUS-4 Ozone Generator

The VMUS-4 Ozone Generator has been in production for well over 15 years now.  There have been updates to the VMUS-4 during that time, however, the updates that occurred in 2017 have been the most drastic and best improvements yet. 

As a recap, the VMUS-4 is a versatile ozone generator that can produce ozone efficiently from either oxygen or dry air while operating under a pressure or vacuum.  The VMUS-4 produces 10 g/hr ozone from oxygen or 4 g/hr ozone from dry air.  This is an ozone generator that can be implemented in a wide variety of ozone applications.

VMUS-4 OZone Generator
VMUS-4 Ozone Generator

The enclosure and basic function of the VMUS-4 has remained mostly unchanged since it’s inception.  However, in 2014 a revised transformer and inverter board were implemented, along with an improved 10-position switch and integrated flow-switch.  In 2017 even more, changes have taken place, below is a summary of updates and changes.

2014 updates:

  • Original oil-filled transformer replaced with open-coil style transformer for greater reliability
  • Driver board was replaced, new board has the transformer and flow-switch integrated on the board for a smaller design.  Greater number of transistors are used for greater reliability
  • 10-position switch become rocker switch style and was standard on all units, prior to this it was a knob and was an option
  • Flow-switch is not standard, and much more sensitive and reliable.

2017 updates:

  • Same transformer, and flow wich used on the driver board, however, updates to the driver board have been made to allow the unit to operate on 120 or 220 VAC power without making any changes to the unit.  There is now no cost to a 220 VAC unit.
  • The enclosure has changed for the first time, the enclosure is now slimmer than before.  While height and width have stayed the same, the enclosure is not as deep.
  • 10-position switch has again changed to a button style that is easy to change
  • ON/OFF switch is now a simple one-touch button
  • Lights on user interface are now LED
  • Cooling fans have changed from AC fans to DC operated fans, they are smaller and offer more airflow and more coverage of the corona cell for improved cooling

In summary, the VMUS-4 ozone generator is better than ever with the same great reliability (even better) and versatility our customers demand.

We have recently tested the updated VMUS-4 ozone generator performance on oxygen across a wide variety of flow rates, and each potential output setting.  This chart is shown below for your review.

Click on image for larger view

VMUS-4 ozone generator
VMUS-4 Ozone Generator Performance chart on oxygen feed-gas

We provide an ozone generator performance chart with every ozone generator we sell.  It is imperative you know exactly what the performance of your ozone generator should be prior to implementing it into your application.

If you have any questions on what ozone generator may be right for your application, please do not hesitate to call us.  We are more than willing to discuss your specific ozone application and help you find suitable ozone equipment for your needs.

Downloads:

K Series Brochure

VMUS-4 Ozone Generator Manual

VMUS-4 when used with VMD Air Dryer Manual