Ozone Safe, Effective for Knee Osteoarthritis Pain

Read Full Article HERE

Intra-articular ozone may provide pain relief, functional improvement, and gains in quality of life (QoL) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to a study recently published in PLoS One.1

The intervention, which was conducted by a team of Brazilian researchers affiliated with the Sao Paulo Federal University in Brazil, was shown to be safe and effective. “Although many clinical series reports have been accomplished, no randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial had been accomplished until now,” said lead investigator Carlos César Lopes de Jesus, MD, in an interview with Clinical Pain Advisor.

ozone relieves knee pain
After 8 weeks of treatment, statistically significant differences favoring ozone were seen in several efficacy measures.

A total of 98 patients with symptomatic knee OA were enrolled in the trial and randomly assigned to receive intra-articular injections of ozone (20 μg/mL; n=63), or air (10 mL; n=35) once weekly for 8 weeks. Efficacy measures included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); Lequesne Index, in which patients with knee OA rate pain and function on a 0 to 24-point scale; Timed Up and Go Test, which evaluates balance and fall risk; SF-36 Health Survey Instrument, which evaluates QoL on a scale of 0 to 100 (0 =worst health); Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC); and the Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM).

After 8 weeks of treatment, statistically significant differences favoring ozone were seen in several efficacy measures. A significant reduction in pain as measured by VAS, GPM, and WOMAC scores was seen in the ozone group compared with the placebo group (P <.001). Differences in WOMAC scores, particularly toward the end of the treatment course, also indicated a significant improvement in joint stiffness and engagement in physical activities (P <.001). Lequesne Index measures also indicated a significant reduction in pain and improvement in function (P < .001), and QoL in relation to function, pain, and general physical and mental health was also statistically superior in the ozone group compared with the placebo group (P <.001). No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to the Timed Up and Go Test.

The study investigators reminded clinicians that symptomatic knee OA affects more than 9.3 million US adults and is a leading cause of disability. Agents to slow progression are lacking. Ozone therapy has been used as an alternative therapy in some chronic conditions such as rheumatic and osteoarthritic disease.

“In my opinion, ozone injections are more effective than the use of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents [NSAIDs] for the treatment of knee OA,” said Dr Lopes de Jesus. He explained that ozone has a significantly broader mechanism of action than NSAIDs and corticosteroids, providing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and the ability to deter antalgic gait.2 “Ozone activates the cellular metabolism, reduces prostaglandin synthesis, makes the redox system function properly by reducing oxidative stress through induction of the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, and ameliorates tissue oxygen supply through hemorheologic action, vasodilatation, and angiogenic stimulation.“ Dr Lopes de Jesus added that ozone has been reported to have a restorative effect once it mobilizes bone marrow, mesenchymal, and endothelial stem cells, but no study had demonstrated this until now.

Puncture accidents, which occurred in 2 patients in the placebo group and 1 in the ozone group, were the only reported adverse events in this study. Adverse events are rare and comprise acute and transitory pain in the knee at the moment of ozone application, said Dr Lopes de Jesus.

The investigators concluded that their results are encouraging and warrant further study.

Summary and Clinical Applicability

The value of intra-articular ozone for pain relief and functional improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis was confirmed in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Limitations and Disclosures

According to Dr Lopes de Jesus, the main limitation of the current study was the lack of imaging examination control to evaluate the impact of treatment.

Read Full Article HERE


Updated Calibration Chamber

Recently Oxidation Tech updated our calibration chamber and process.  We have been using a smaller chamber or individual processes to calibrate each sensor we receive one by one.  With our new calibration chamber, we can calibrate as many as 10-15 ozone monitors at one time.

Calibrate ozone monitors
Ozone Calibration Chamber

This calibration chamber still uses our Thermo Fischer Transfer Standard Ozone Analyzer to measure and control ozone levels inside the chamber.  However, with the use of an external ozone generator and automated control system a precise ozone level can be maintained inside the chamber at all times.  This saves time and potentially provides a higher quality, more accurate calibration for your device.

Ozone exposure chamber
Complete O3 Calibration Chamber/O3 Exposure Chamber

Our ozone calibration chamber can also be used to high range calibrations up to 1,000 ppm, or can be used for ozone exposure testing.  As this sealed chamber has great capacity and automation any device a customer may need to be exposed to ozone can be placed in the chamber to be exposed to known and tightly controlled ozone levels.

We also offer ozone exposure testing for higher range ozone levels, and lower range ozone levels in a smaller chamber.  Ozone exposure chambers are also a part of our standard product line as these are a popular requirement for many material testing facilities.

Should you have any questions on ozone calibrations, please contact our office.  We would be glad to help with any ozone monitor calibration.


Measure ozone production rates real-time

Tracking performance of an ozone system real-time is valuable for pilot test and even full-scale ozone systems and may be easier than you think.

Ozone system output is measured in g/hr or lb/day.  These values indicate the production rate of an ozone system.  Knowing the production rate of your ozone system real-time can have value in tracking system performance and preventing system failures by spotting potential issues before they start.

To calculate ozone production both the oxygen flow-rate and ozone concentration must be measured.  Both of these values can be measured real-time with digital devices installed inline with your ozone system.

ozone pilot system example install with measuring devices
Ozone generation system example with a Mass Flow Meter, UV Ozone Analyzer, and Oxygen Purity Meter installed inline.

Mass Flow Meter:

Mass Flom Meter GFM
GFM Mass Flow Meter

The GFM Mass Flow Meter will measure and display oxygen flow through your system real-time with a pressure compensated flow rate.  A mass flow meter measures the overall mass of gas passing through the device using ultrasonic technology.  This ensures reliable and repeatable flow measurements that do not require any conversions for temperature or pressure changes to the gas stream.  An LCD display or digital output can be provided to record oxygen flow rate.

UV Ozone Analyzer:

UV-HCR High Concentration Ozone Analyzer
UV-HCR Ozone Analzyer

The UV-HCR Ozone Analyzer will measure ozone concentration real-time to indicate the actual concentration of ozone produced by your ozone generator.   The UV Analyzer uses UV absorption technology to measure ozone concentration.  This unit provides an LCD display or digital output to record ozone concentration.

A sidestream of ozone gas must flow through the UV ozone analyzer (1-2 LPM).  Some of the ozone will be destroyed in the UV lamp measurement tube, the remaining must be converted back to oxygen safely using an ozone destruct device.

Oxygen Purity Meter:

OXM-12L Oxygen Purity Meter
OXL-12L Oxygen Purity Meter

The OXM-12L Oxygen Purity meter will measure oxygen purity real-time to ensure the oxygen purity remains stable and sufficient for efficient ozone production.  Ultrasonic technology is used to measure the composition of gas and ensure oxygen purity remains consistent.  This unit provides indicator lights to display oxygen purity and a digital output, an LCD display is optional.

Data Logger:

DL-3 Ecosensors data logger
DL-3 Data Logger

Data from each of the devices can be input into a PLC for real-time calculation and reporting of ozone production in g/hr or lb/day.  Data can also be recorded with a simple datalogger that can record data from each device real-time to be recorded for later review.

When measuring ozone concentration in % by weight the feed-gas (air or oxygen) must be factored into the calculation as oxygen and air have different weights. When calculating a percentage of a weight, it is necessary to know the weight of carrier gas.


Ozone Calculations:

Ozone Calculations and online calculators can be found at the links below:


Ozone generator output

((LPM x 60) x 0.001) x g/m3 = g/hr

Example = ((10 LPM x 60) x 0.001) x 10 g/m3 = 6 g/hr ozone production


Ozone Concentration in air by weight

100 g/m3 = 7.8% O3

1% = 12.8 g/m3 O3

1% = 7,284 ppm O3

Ozone Concentration in oxygen by volume

100 g/m3 = 6.99% O3

1% = 14.3 g/m3 O3

1% = 6,520 ppm O3

Ozone removes color from water

Ozone does a great job removing color from water.  Ozone is an oxidant and will bleach water efficiently.  We were recently shipped a sample of wastewater from a client looking to have us determine if ozone would remove color from their water.  We were very impressed with the results, and decided to share, see video below for impressive results of ozone removing color in this water sample:

The water sample shown is 250 ml. Ozone is generated from oxygen. Oxygen/ozone flow rate of 1 LPM is initiated about 5 seconds into the video. Ozone concentration is 10% by weight.

For more information on ozone use for color removal in wastewater, see our website at the link below:


Ozone Bubble Diffusers – stainless steel

We have recently obtained some new Stainless Steel Ozone Bubble Diffusers.  These are excellent options for your simple ozone system using a bubble diffuser.  These diffusers are constructed of sintered stainless steel and offer a 20 micron rating bubble size.  Max flow rates are 2.7 CFM and 5 CFM.

Ozone diffusers
Ozone Bubble Diffusers

We offer these diffusers in 2 sizes.  Each has a 6″ long diffuser attached to a pipe nipple with a 1/4″ Male NPT threaded connection.  The difference in sizes we offer are only diameter differences.  This allows more surface area of the diffuser itself, and therefore a higher maximum flow capacity.

Quantity discounts are offered for each diffuser, see our website for details on discounts.

Ozone Diffuser Features:

  • Sintered stainless steel construction is strong and reliable for many years of service
  • Threaded connection offers a solid seal to your piping or tubing
  • Hex nipple allows a wrench to be used to tighten or later remove the diffuser from your fitting or piping, this eliminates the potential of breaking the diffuser when twisting the sintered steel
  • Welded construction
  • 20 micron rating allows for very small ozone bubbles
  • 6″ length is sufficient to offer great surface area, but without the extra length to minimize damage
Ozone bubble diffuser
Ozone Diffuser – 1/2″ diameer shown
ozone bubble diffuser welded and capped end
Welded end of diffuser shown
Stainless ozone diffuser with hex nipple
Hex nipple and threaded connection of ozone diffuser shown. A solid seal is made with the stainless threaded connection and hex nipple.


Tips for using a bubble diffuser:

  • Before attempting to dissolve ozone into water ensure you understand the principles of ozone solubility well.  Click HERE for more information
  • Water tank must be vented to safely remove excess ozone/oxygen from the tank
  • Diffuser should be placed at the bottom of the tank
  • Taller tanks and taller water heights will increase mass transfer of ozone into water as the water pressure is higher at the bottom of the tank, and the gas bubble must travel farther in the water.
  • Ozone generated from oxygen will dissolve into water more efficiently than ozone generated from air
  • Ozone generated at high concentrations will dissolve into water most efficiently, target the highest concentration ozone possible when using a bubble diffuser.
  • Colder water temperatures will achieve highest dissolved ozone levels.
  • Use counter-current water flows across the bubble diffuser
ozone bubble diffuser
Drawing of example of ozone bubble diffuser in use

Above drawing gives a great example of how an ozone bubble diffuser can be used in a very simple system.  A great advantage to this system vs those that use a venturi injector is that there is no water pump required in this system, this is a very passive, and energy efficient system.  Many of the failure prone pieces of equipment of a traditional ozone injection system are not used in this system.  Consider this in your next ozone system.

ozone bench-test system
Ozone bench-test system using bubble diffuser

A great opportunity to use an ozone diffuser is a simple bench-test system.  Set-up a column to dissolve ozone into constructed of glass or PVC.  We use PVC pipe and place a diffuser in the bottom of the pipe via a tee.  This allows the column to be 5-feet tall or more.  This allows a great opportunity to maximize ozone transfer into water.

The drawing above shows a complete system, if you are interested in setting a system like this up, let us know.  We sell and rent all this equipment, or can provide this testing for you in our facility.