Ozone used for water reclamation

Recently we installed an ISX-Series ozone system for a water reclamation project. Below are a few images of this install.

Water reclamation with ozone
Ozone used for water reclamation
ISX ozone system for water re-use
Water re-use using ozone water treatment

This is a factory water reclamation project, water follows the following path:

  • Water collection tank, holding tank
  • Chemical water treatment for coagulation – solids removed from tank
  • Water filtration – screen filter
  • Ozone water treatment
  • Filtration – bag filter
  • Holding tank, ozone bubbled in this tank
  • Sand filtration
  • Water holding tank, ozone bubbled in this tank to keep bacteria from growing
  • Water used in toilets and cleaning in the factory

The ISX-series ozone system is used in this project. This specific system was designed to produce 250 g/hr ozone and treat a water flow rate of 30 GPM passing through the ozone system.

ISX-Series ozone water system

Have an application where ozone may allow you to re-use water, or treat water for safe discharge? Give us a call, we would be glad to help.

Ozone use in the cannabis industry

As the cannabis industry grows in the USA the interest in the use of ozone in this industry grows. There are many applications and potential uses for ozone in the cannabis industry, both in the growing and processing of cannabis. However, there are also many myths and potential misunderstandings on the use of ozone in this industry. This article will serve as a general guide to help understand the practical uses of ozone in this industry.

Irrigation water treatment:

Cannabis can be grown in many ways, in each, whether indoor, outdoor, hydroponic, or other, all require irrigation water for growing the plants. This water must be clean, pure and free of pathogenic bacteria for efficient plant growth. Ozone can be used to treat general well water for removal of harmful minerals and bacteria. See link HERE for additional details on these applications. Ozone can also be used to treat other incoming water sources that may have harmful pathogens, or generally low dissolved oxygen levels due to organics in water.

Ozone is commonly used to treat well water, and city water sources for many water treatment issues. The use of ozone in water treatment is common, and is one of the oldest and most frequent uses for ozone in the world. Using the same systems and processes that would be used in other agriculture applications, or drinking water applications is applicable in the cannabis industry with no major changes to the systems or technologies.

As ozone is more soluble into water than oxygen, and ozone will revert to oxygen naturally in water, adding ozone to your water will naturally increase dissolved oxygen levels in that water. Increased dissolved oxygen levels in water are always beneficial for irrigation systems.

Surface sanitation:

Ozone can be dissolved into water to be used for surface sanitation in rooms, equipment, and even plants if required. Ozone gas is produced, dissolved into water at high levels and used as a sanitizer. Ozone increases the ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) in the water to a level that if any of the water comes into contact with pathogens on the surface being treated.

This same application with ozone is common in the food processing industry. Many studies have been done on the use of ozone in these applications for food processing, and there are many ozone system currently in use for these applications. The same systems and processes used in the food processing industry can also be used in the horticulture and further processing of the cannabis plant.

We have provided ozone systems for surface sanitation applications by themselves. We have also supplied ozone systems capable of treating both incoming irrigation water and providing the higher dissolved ozone levels necessary for surface sanitation in one package with one ozone generation system, but 2 separate ozone mixing systems to dissolve ozone in water in two separate water streams and control individually.

Ozone in water for surface sanitation is safe, there are no harmful side-effects to humans or plants from ozone in water. However, if done incorrectly ozone in water can be off-gassed from water and enter the gas phase. Ozone in the gas phase can be harmful to both humans and plants. In this application ensure ozone is implemented and operated properly.

Odor Control:

Likely the oldest and traditionally the most common use of ozone in the cannabis growing industry, is odor control. Ozone is extremely effective at reducing organic odors and is used in many applications for odor reduction/elimination. During the growing, cultivation, and processing of the cannibis plant odors are created that can be potentially offensive. In applications where neighbors are close by or there may be aversions to any fugitive odors ozone can be used in the air exhaust of the building to eliminate odors effectively.

Cannibis Disinfection:

The final harvested product must meet specific mold, and bacteria standards to be sold to the end-user for consumption. There are state standards and good manufacturing processes to adhere to on mold and bacteria counts on final products. Ozone can be used to provide disinfection for this final product to met the most stringent mold and bacteria standards in your state.

Room Disinfection:

Ozone gas can be used in rooms to inactivate pathogens. Ozone gas can be used after aqueous ozone is used for surface sanitation to ensure all pathogens in the room are destroyed before starting a new crop, or between processing batches of harvested product. The room must be empty of plants and people, ozone gas can be pumped into the room at levels that would be harmful to plant, people and all pathogens. Ozone monitors can be used to control ozone levels and ensure the room is safe for re-entry when complete.

Exampe of an ozone system:

Below is an image of an ozone system that can be used for both water treatment and surface sanitation applications in one package.

This system has a larger 30 gallon contact tank to treat high water flow-rates of incoming water with low ozone dosages for disinfection purposes. The 30-gallon tank will provide sufficient contact time with ozone to achieve disinfection with ozone. An ORP meter is used to measure and control ozone levels in water.

The smaller ozone mixing tank will provide lower water flow rates with a high dissolved ozone level (>2.0 ppm) to be used for surface sanitation applications. A dissolved ozone meter is used to measure and control ozone levels in water real-time.

Custom OST ozone system with 2 separate ozone injection loopshttps://www.oxidationtech.com/products/ozone-water-system/ost.html#1025=

Below is an image of an ozone injection system that will dissolve ozone into water, but also includes ozone gas outlets to be used for room disinfection, odor control, or other ozone gas applications. An HMI touchscreen panel offers control of the ozone outputs via timers, and ozone monitors measuring ozone levels in each location.

OST-series ozone system with ozone gas valve options

Below is a diagram of how an ozone system can be configured for many various applications in the cannabis industry in one single package.

Ozone is produced via oxygen under pressure. This ozone gas is controlled and can be sent to various rooms with ozone monitors in each room. These ozone monitors will control ozone levels to proper levels for the specific application.

Ozone gas can be delivered to the venturi injector that is a part of the ozone mixing tank. This ozone in water can be plumbed directly to a point of use with a high level of ozone for sanitation applications. OR, can pass through a UV light that will safely revert all ozone back to oxygen prior to using in an irrigation system where ozone in water may be undesirable.

This system also shows an ozone destruct unit for ozone off-gas. This off-gassed ozone is reverted safely back to oxygen. This oxygen can be bubbled into an irrigation system to increase dissolved oxygen levels slightly.

As you can see, there are a wide variety of potential uses of ozone in the cannabis industry. Due to this wide variety, there is some misinformation and some myths about the use of ozone. If you would like to learn how ozone could benefit your facility, please contact our application engineers. We would be glad to help.

How to measure ozone in water

The K-7404 ozone test kit is a quick, easy, and reliable method to measure dissolved ozone levels in water. This is a manual coloremetric test kit that will measure ozone in water directly up to 3.0 ppm.

K-7404 ozone test kit

The K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit allows you to test for dissolved ozone levels in the range of 0.05 ppm – 3.0 ppm. Included in the kit are 30 test ampoules, which are used up and are replaceable. There is also a cylinder of activator solution included, which causes a chemical reaction during the test. This solution is also used up and can be replaced. The permanent parts of the kit are the box itself, the 25 mL test cup, and the two-color comparators. The lower level color comparator has a range of 0.05 ppm dissolved ozone and goes up to 0.6 ppm dissolved ozone. The higher range color comparator starts where the other one left off, going from 0.6 ppm to 3.0 ppm dissolved ozone.

To take the test, first make sure all the items you need for the test are laid out. This is important because once you take your sample of dissolved ozone, you need to proceed through the test steps quickly to ensure the dissolved ozone doesn’t break down. If you take too long between taking the sample and testing the level of dissolved ozone, you will get an inaccurate reading showing lower levels of dissolved ozone than what truly exists.

Add five drops of activator solution to the empty sample cup. Then add 25 mL of dissolved ozone to the sample cup. Quickly place the tip of the ampoule in the cup, swirl it several times, and snap off the end of the vial at the bottom of the cup. The vial will instantly fill with the sample, because the vial is vacuum sealed. Move the vial back and forth several times so the bubble moves up and down the tube, thoroughly mixing the sample. Wait 1 minute. Compare the color of the test ampoule to the varying levels of pink-colored tubes in the color comparators. The darker the pink, the higher the levels of dissolved ozone. Purchase K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit

Purchase Replacement Ampoules here

Custom Ozone Injection Systems

Oxidation Technologies builds a wide variety of ozone injection systems. However, we also customize our wide range of systems with standard optional equipment we offer on any one of our systems. Below are a few examples of custom systems we have provided recently.

OST-40 Ozone Injection System with options:

  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 PPM
  • ORP monitor
  • Water flow switch – turn system ON/OFF based on water flow
  • Ozone off-gas scrubber
  • High ambient temp alarm
  • Internal air compressor
OST-40 Ozone Injection Ssytem

Ozone levels in water can be controlled with either the Dissolved ozone meter, or the ORP meter, or both. The ozone generator will turn OFF when high limit ozone in water, or ORP limits are reached.

An internal air compressor is used to provide compressed air to the system, only electrical power is required for this system. Due to the internal compressor and potential environment, the high temp alarm was also added.

OST-20 with Ozone gas control options:

  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
  • Ozone gas output valves x10
  • HMI touchscreen for ozone level and timer controls
Ozone injection system
OST-20 Ozone Injection System with ozone gas options

This system features ten ozone output valves to distribute ozone to 10 separate cold storage rooms. Ozone gas levels are measured and controlled with remote ozone meters, ozone levels are displayed on the HMI panel. Both controlled ambient ozone levels, and timers are controlled on the HMI panel. This data can all be viewed remotely from any location via an internet connection.

OST-30 Ozone System with two injection systems:

  • Second ozone injection loop for 2 water streams
  • Larger 30-gallon ozone contact tank for water disinfection
  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm for surface sanitation loop
  • ORP meter for water disinfection loop
  • CDU-30 ozone scrubber
  • High ambient temp alarm

One ozone injection system with two separate injection loops.

Injection loop #1 features a 30 gallon ozone contact tank and an ORP monitor for water disinfection. An ORP level of 800 or higher is maintained in this tank to provide disinfection in up to 30 GPM of water.

Injection loop #2 features a standard ozone mixing tank with a high range dissolved ozone meter to provide up to 20 GPM of water with ozone levels of 2.0 – 3.0 for surface sanitation applications.

Additional features of this system include a CDU-30 ozone scrubber for ozone off-gas and a high-temperature alarm. A UV-light system was also provided with this system to be used with the water disinfection ozone injection loop. This removes ozone from water and provides disinfected water with no ozone residual for a sensitive downstream process.

OST-60 Ozone System with 50 gallon ozone contat tank:

  • 50-gallon ozone contact tank
  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
  • Oxygen purity meter
  • Water flow switch

This system features a 50 gallon ozone contact tank to provide additional contact time with ozone and water. A dissolved ozone meter verifies dissolved ozone levels and offers control. The system can be turned ON/OFF with a water flow switch.

An oxygen purity meter is built into this system. This meter provides a digital reading of actual oxygen purity inside the cabinet. A low O2 purity indicator is provided on the enclosure as an alarm.

OST-100 Ozone System options:

  • 50 gallon ozone contact tank
  • Low-range dissolved ozone meter
  • ORP monitor
  • Sanitary ozone transfer pump with VFD and power disconnect
  • Water flow meter
  • HMI touchscreen for automated system operation

This custom system was built to specific requirements by this customer. A 50 gallon ozone contact tank was provided on the system. A large ozone transfer pump with a sanitary impeller was provided with a VFD to achieve a specific water flow-rate through the system. This water flow rate was measured with the water flow meter. Dissolved ozone and ORP are measured and controlled on this system based on water flow-rate and customers’ needs. All this control and set-up is performed with the touchscreen HMI panel built onto this system.

Aeroqual S-200 Ozone Monitor

Video unboxing and showing the accessories that are shipped with the Aeroqual S-200 Ozone Monitor.

The Series 200 is a user-friendly gas detector base that pairs with multiple ozone range sensors and is small enough to be easily transported in a carrying case.

Included in the box is the Series 200 gas detector base, which receives sensor heads with several different ranges of ozone. These are the ozone ranges that the sensor heads will detect: 0-.05 ppm, 0-.15 ppm, 0-0.5 ppm, and 0-10.0 ppm. The sensor head is shipped in a separate box. Also included in the S-200 monitor base box is the power cord and a sheet of information on where to find the user guide online.

The S200 monitor base is shipped with the battery inside it, but the battery cord is not actually plugged in to the base. Remove the back of the monitor, pull out the battery, and plug the cord tip into the port inside the back of the monitor base. Replace the battery as well as the S-200 backing. The base is now ready to be plugged into a wall outlet for charging the battery.

The Series 200 detector’s small size and 24-hour battery life make it an ideal device to take along on job sites. When paired with this specially designed carrying case, the Series 200 monitor offers a convenient and transportable ozone detection solution.

Purchase Series 200 monitor base HERE

Aeroqual Series-200

Ozone use in Poultry Processing

TUCKER, Ga. – New research has demonstrated how an innovative packaging technology can extend shelf life and improve the safety of poultry products. The USPOULTRY Foundation funded project was conducted in Athens, Georgia, at a US Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (ARS) facility and concluded that atmospheric cold plasma (CP)-based antimicrobial packaging technology can be used to increase shelf life and decrease pathogens in raw poultry breast meat. Dr. Hong Zhuang, research food technologist with the ARS Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, discovered a packaging system that utilizes electrical current to create ozone in sealed poultry packages, which results in decreased spoilage and pathogens in the products.

Read Full article HERE

Packaged chicken

The CP-based system is an alternative to traditional, non-thermal antimicrobial interventions, which include water-chilling poultry in a chlorinated solution and maintaining safe temperatures during the processing and storage of the products.

According to the USPOULTRY summary of the findings: “There are a number of advantages with this packaging system compared to alternative treatments, such as eliminating pre-packaging treatment requirements, adaptability for use with any size and type of package and treatment time, having no chemical residues after treatment, and cost effectiveness.”

The research summary quantifies the effectiveness of the technology, which found across-the-board reduction in spoilage-causing microbes in chicken breasts packed in air, including: Campylobacter (reduced by more than 90 percent) and Salmonella (by 60 percent). Similar reductions in Campylobacter were found in breast meat packed in oxygen and carbon dioxide atmospheres but there were no reductions in Salmonella levels. The appearance of ozone-enhanced products was affected, as the product color was reported to be lighter or paler after storage while changes in pH and drip loss were not significant.    

Achieving optimum results using the CP technology requires 60 kilovolts for 60 seconds and the ideal packaging atmosphere is 35 percent oxygen, 60 percent carbon dioxide and 5 percent nitrogen.

The research summary concludes: “The expected reduction is more than 90 percent in spoilage microbes and Campylobacter and 60 percent in Salmonella after five days of storage at refrigerated temperature.

Looking for an ozone system for poultry or food processing? Follow link below for information on what we can offer:

https://www.oxidationtech.com/products/ozone-water-system.html

Bench test set-up with ozone example

We recently set-up some equipment for a customer to perform his own bench testing with ozone.  Below is a description of this set-up and the parts used.  Hopefully, this helps you learn more about the possibilities with ozone and how you can set this up yourself.

More info on ozone bench-test set-ups at this link.

 

Ozone system for bench testing
Diagram of ozone bench-scale equipment for laboratory testing

The above diagram shows the equipment used and basic plumbing of this equipment. This specific set-up was designed to use ozone gas to treat a dry product. The test column in this application would have a dry edible product in it, ozone would be used to provide disinfection of this food product. Using the ozone analyzer the actual level of ozone passing through the column can be verified, also the ozone analyzer could measure ozone leaving the column to determine the level of ozone consumed by the product.

This system uses an air dryer and a larger air pump as gas flows up to 30 LPM will be used. Target ozone levels of 20 – 200 ppm will be used in this gas flow through the product. The high gas flow and tall colum will help “float” the product to achieve great contact with ozone gas and the product being tested.

ozone bench-test
Example of ozone equipment for lab set-up

The images above and below show the actual products used.  These are the same components shown in the diagram above.  As usual, real-life is not as seamless and tidy as a diagram.  This does give a great example of how this can be set-up in your lab and how much space this may consume.

The ozone products used are:

VMD air dryer 

The VMD-30 air dryer is a vacuum driven heat regenerative air dryer that will provide air dried to -40-deg F dew point at a flow up to 30 LPM.  Perfect to ensure the air fed into the ozone generator is dry, and consistent.  This will ensure reliable ozone levels and measurements.

HTU-500 Ozone Generator

The HTU-500 ozone generator is a great small lab-scale ozone generator.  This unit will operate on air or oxygen, and at pressure or vacuum.  Great versatility for lab scale project.

UV-106M Ozone Analyzer

Measures ozone in air using UV absorption technology.  This unit will measure ozone up to 1,000 ppm accurately with a resolution of only 0.01 ppm.  This great tool can be used for this bench-test set-up and later when this system goes to full scale.

Compressor

A basic diaphragm compressor was used for this application.  We added a flowmeter with a valve to adjust air flow between 0-30 LPM.  It is important the compressor used does not leak air into itself so we can ensure the dry air is pushed through the ozone generator.

Ozone test column

The ozone test column, shown below, is constructed of 2″ clear PVC and CPVC fittings.  This same column can be used for water tests with only minor differences.  The height of this column ensures ozone gas will pass through the product or water placed in the column for a great distance, this ensures better contact or mass transfer of the ozone.  The cap on top can ensure safety and catch any excess ozone to be measured by a UV ozone analyzer.  A stainless steel diffuser is placed in the TEE at the bottom of this column.  This diffuses the ozone gas into the air or water to ensure great mixing.

 

ozone equipment for lab scale equipment
Ozone treatment column for bench-test

Column manufactured from PVC to test ozone in lab scale applications
PVC column for ozone bench-test applications

Demonstration of the C-30ZX ozone monitor response speed and alarm function

The C-30ZX ozone monitor is a fixed mount device that will measure ozone from 0-0.14 ppm in 0.02 ppm increments.  This monitor features an internal relay and audible alarm.  The internal relay is user settable at any level from 0.02 – 0.14 in 0.02 ppm increments.  This relay can be used to indicate a remote alarm or shut-down the ozone generation source.  The audible alarm will also sound simultaneously when the relay is set-point is triggered.

The video below displays the response time and the audible alarm triggering.

The EcoSensors C-30ZX is a wall-mounted ozone detector with an instant LED readout, audible safety alarm, and relay switch. The range of ozone measured by this meter is 0-.14 PPM. The main purpose of this sensor is for personnel safety, as 0.14 PPM ozone is the maximum exposure limit allowed by OSHA during an 8-hour work shift.

C-30ZX Ozone Monitor

Purchase EcoSensors C-30ZX Ozone Detector here

The C-30ZX has a rapid readout response to changes in ozone levels. Notice how quickly the LED light readout indicates an increase in the ozone level as the sensor moves near the ozone generator. Then, as it moves away, notice how the LED lights almost instantly reflect the lower levels of ozone.

The C-30ZX has an audible alarm that can be switched on. In this case, the alarm is set to sound at .1 ppm. The alarm can be manually switched off – or, it will also stop sounding as soon as the ozone levels are below the alarm set point.

Bump tester for ozone monitors – ozone puffer

The video below shows the basic functions of the Ozone Puffer.  This is a great tool to use to bump test your ozone monitors quickly without taking them out of service or carrying dangerous calibration gasses to the sensor.

Ozone monitors should be bump tested periodically to ensure they have a positive response to ozone gas and will react to ozone as they should.  Bump testing does not take the place of calibration but is done in-between calibrations to ensure your ozone monitor will react to ozone if, or when a dangerous level of ozone is released into the airspace.

The Ozone Puffer is used for field ozone detector bump tests.

O3 Bump Test Puffer

Purchase Ozone Puffer here

The Ozone Puffer generates ozone internally and then delivers that ozone directly to the ozone sensor. The purpose of the test is not to test the detector’s accuracy, but to ensure that the sensor is responding to ozone.

The Ozone Puffer has 4 features: ozone generator button, LED readout, puffer button, and tubing. To activate the Puffer, hold down the ozone generator button until the LED readout appears as a red number 9. Release the generator button and allow the LED readout to blink about 30 times. When the blinking stops, the Puffer is ready. Quickly press the puffer button while holding the tip of the tubing near the ozone sensor inlet. This delivers a large amount of ozone directly to the ozone sensor. Watch the ozone detector’s readout to ensure that the reading quickly goes up. The purpose is to ensure that the ozone detector is responding to ozone.