We have additional products available that will be added as we get them tested and ready for use. If you are in the market for ozone equipment, and previously used equipment is acceptable for your application please contact us today. We will review our current inventory and determine if we have equipment that will meet your needs.
All our used ozone equipment has been refurbished as necessary to bring operation to a like-new condition. All ozone equipment can be repaired and refurbished to original specifications. Provided the costs are reasonable we will refurbish and offer for sale at a discount to our customer.
We will offer a 30 day warranty on all our used ozone equipment to ensure that you have a chance to get the equipment operational and ensure that there are no lingering issues with the equipment.
4-Step Test Tells Waste Plants Whether To Use Ozone.
Is ozone useful for zapping micropollutants, or does it leave too many byproducts? A new test aims to find out.
In a study published in the journalWater Research, a team of experts from three European research institutions “present a test to evaluate the suitability of ozone treatment for urban wastewater,” according to a statement from Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, which supported that research along with ETH Zurich and Eawag.
Micropollutants are a hot regulatory issue in Switzerland, where environmental overseers called for around 100 wastewater treatment plants to upgrade their treatment technology. Over the next two decades, nearly one in seven Swiss wastewater treatment plants will be overhauled to improve their micropollutant treatment processes.
Plant operators “have to decide whether to use powdered activated carbon to adsorb micropollutants, or ozone to destroy them,” the statement said.
So, how do they pick?
“According to Urs von Gunten who led the study, both approaches have similar efficiencies, but differ in other important ways. Once used, powdered activated carbon is incinerated with the sewage sludge, effectively destroying any adsorbed micropollutants. However, it requires significant maintenance operations. Ozone treatment, by contrast, is easy to automate and clean to handle. Micropollutants are broken apart chemically, and the fragments are then released into the environment,” the statement said.
As the U.S. EPA points out, ozone has drawbacks. “Low dosage may not effectively inactivate some viruses, spores, and cysts. Ozonation is a more complex technology than is chlorine or UV disinfection, requiring complicated equipment and efficient contacting systems.”
So when should it be used? The new test introduced by the European research team gives operators a four-step process for testing whether ozone is a good choice, per the statement:
von Gunten and his team developed a four-step test procedure to assess whether the wastewater from a specific plant can be safely treated with ozone. Not only does it involve assessing the efficiency of micropollutant abatement and the formation of oxidation byproducts, the test also includes a series of biological assays to test the toxicity of the treated wastewater before and after treatment. “The idea is that the test, which will be carried out by a private laboratory, will assist cantonal agencies and federal authorities in deciding how best to upgrade wastewater treatment plants,” he says.
Ozone use for removal of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals continues to gain attention. There are very few oxidants with the potential to remove or successfully bread down EDC’s in wastewater. The use of ozone in water treatment and AOP is continually researched and tested with the anticipation it may be the technology of choice in the future.
A recent article again lays out some new techniques and results of ozone use for EDC removal. Read full article HERE, or see excerpt below.
Newly developed oxidation process uses ozone to degrade contaminants in water
At the Center for Research and Assistance in Technology and Design of the State of Jalisco (CIATEJ) at the east of Mexico, an oxidation process was developed that uses ozone to degrade contaminants in water that alter the synthesis, transport, action or elimination of natural hormones, responsible for maintain self-regulation of metabolic and reproductive processes in living beings.
These compounds represent a potential risk to human health associated with problems in the male and female reproductive systems, and some of them are precursors of breast and prostate cancer.
The research team led by PhD Alberto Lopez at CIATEJ carries out the procedure by gas-liquid reactors, where the water with the presence of such substances called disrupting compounds of the Endocrine System (EDCs) is passed through a gas stream with ozone, which is a major oxidant.
And under certain conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and ozone dosage the EDCs are degraded to less than 95 percent of its initial concentration, exceeding conventional water treatment processes that just reach a 50 percent removal.
EDCs are found in surface water, soil and air. There is great diversity of them, basically solvents, organochlorine pesticides, flame retardants, plasticizers and synthetic and natural hormones.
Carbon Monoxide (CO), is often called the “Silent Killer” because of its ability to take lives quickly and quietly when its victims never even knew they were at risk. It is indetectable to humans, being both tasteless and odorless, and in high enough concentrations it can kill within minutes. But CO is not so silent if you read about its victims in the news. It already claims hundreds of lives each year, and survivors of CO poisoning can be left with psychological and neurological symptoms. Sadly, this toxic gas takes lives that could be saved through education, awareness, and simple protection. Read this article to make yourself aware of the risks that CO poses, and how to stay CO safe!
CO is a poisonous gas produced by the incomplete burning of carbon based fuels. When inhaled it deprives the blood stream of oxygen, suffocating its victim. No one is immune to the effects of CO, though children 14 and under are more likely to sustain poisoning than adults at lower levels. CO can cause immediate health problems, and even death, in high concentrations, and some suspect it can also cause long-term health problems in low concentrations if a person experiences regular exposure (such as at home, or in the workplace). Significant exposure to CO can also reduce life expectancy, as reported in arecent articleof the Journal of the American Medicine Association.
Any gas or propane based engine will produce CO, meaning thatboaters, truckers, and small aircraft pilots are at risk from CO fumes as soon as they start their vehicle. Homeowners suffer the most from CO poisoning, and are in danger from sources like gas-powered furnaces and water heaters, clogged fireplaces and chimneys, cars running in an attached garage, and burning of fuels indoors (such as a gas or charcoal grill).Travelersstaying in hotels are in danger of CO poisoning as well, which can be leaked into a hotel room from nearby faulty heaters and boilers. To see examples of recent CO poisonings in all of these areas, and others, take a look at our newsheadlinespage.
The beginning symptoms of CO poisoning are sometimes compared to the symptoms of food poisoning. Depending on the level of CO, and length of exposure, you may experience any one or more of the following symptoms:
weakness and clumsiness
nausea and vomiting
quick irregular heartbeat
disorientation or confusion seizures
Most people have experienced some of these symptoms at one time or another, which doesn’t necessarily mean that CO poisoning caused them. However, regular occurence of any of these symptoms might be an indication of CO poisoning. For example, do you suffer from any of these symptoms on a regular basis, or always in the same place? For example, do you regularly get headaches after entering your home, or when operating your vehicle. Do your symptoms go away when you leave the house or your vehicle? Have several members in your house been complaining of the same symptoms? If the answer to any of these questions is ‘yes’, then you might be suffering from the effects of CO exposure. But symptoms and problems don’t just appear when a person is exposed to high levels of CO. Even low-level CO concentrations can cause health problems if a person is exposed to them for long periods of time on a regular basis. This excerpt from an article published by the EPA explains why:
The health threat from lower levels of CO is most serious for those who suffer from heart disease, like angina, clogged arteries, or congestive heart failure. For a person with heart disease, a single exposure to CO at low levels may cause chest pain and reduce that person’s ability to exercise; repeated exposures may contribute to other cardiovascular effects. http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/co/hlth1.html
Ultimately, the best way to determine if you are being exposed to CO in your environment, particulary in low-levels, is with a CO detector. Large, wall-socket CO detectors sold in hardware and drug stores may protect you from a high-level leak of CO in your home. Generally though, these detectors do not alarm at low-levels of CO, and also offer no way to measure the actual concentration. Also, to avoid false alarms, such detectors require several continuous minutes of exposure at high-levels before alarming. But by this time, you may already be suffering from the effects of CO poisoning – disoriented, sick, and wondering what is going on. Such home detectors also give you no way to test that they are still working. Don’t be fooled by the “Push to Test” buttons on these detectors.This button tests the audible alarm, but typically doesn’t check if the actual CO sensing element is still functioning. A better way to stay safe, both at home and when away, is with a portable CO monitor that has a digital readout. This allows you to monitor levels anywhere in your environment, no matter where you are. It also gives you the ability to routinely test the detector with a small source of CO (like a blown-out paper match, or CO bump kit).Learn moreabout the Pocket CO portable detector/dosimeter, a way to keep you and your family CO safe!
The level of CO concentration is measured using a system called Parts Per Million (PPM). For example, 100 PPM CO means that for every 999,900 molecules of air, there are 100 molecules of CO. CO effects people differently depending on the concentration. In addition to measuring the current level of CO concentration, another measurement used is the Time-Weighted Average (TWA). This measures your average exposure to CO over time, and is also measured in PPM. For example, if you were exposed to a large dose of CO in the begining of the day, but none afterwards, your TWA for the day would be low, since for most of the day you had no exposure. If, however, you are continually exposed to 20 PPM CO throughout the day, your TWA for the day will be 20 PPM.
The table below summarizes some health effects due to prolonged exposure to various concentrations of CO, as well as some government recommended limits, and Pocket CO alarm levels. It has been compiled from various sources, including the NFPA:
Level of CO
Health Effects, and Other Information
Normal, fresh air.
Maximum recommended indoor CO level (ASHRAE).
Possible health effects with long-term exposure.
Max TWA Exposure for 8 hour work-day (ACGIH). Pocket CO TWA warning sounds each hour.
Maximum permissible exposure in workplace (OSHA). First Pocket CO ALARM starts (optional, every 20 seconds).
Slight headache after 1-2 hours.
Second Pocket CO ALARM starts (every 10 seconds).
Dizziness, naseau, fagitue, headache after 2-3 hours of exposure.
Headache and nausea after 1-2 hours of exposure.
Life threatening in 3 hours. Third Pocket CO ALARM starts (every 5 seconds).
Headache, nausea, and dizziness after 45 minutes; collapse and unconsciousness after 1 hour of exposure.
Death within 2-3 hours.
Loss of consciousness after 1 hour of exposure.
Headache, nausea, and dizziness after 20 minutes of exposure.
Death within 1-2 hours.
Headache, nausea, and dizziness after 5-10 minutes; collapse and unconsciousness after 30 minutes of exposure.
Death within 1 hour.
Death within 30 minutes.
Immediate physiological effects, unconsciousness.
Death within 1-3 minutes of exposure.
There are many CO exposure limits set by government organizations. For a detailed listing, clickhere. The American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) lists a maximum allowable short term limit of 9 PPM. And the EPA has set two national health protection standards for CO: a one-hour TWA of 35 PPM, and an eight-hour TWA of 9 PPM. These standards make it clear that any carbon monoxide reading over 9 PPM should be investigated and acted upon.
Motorboats can release CO at very high concentrations. The CO can accumulate in and around the boat when idling, and can even be dragged behind the boat in what’s known as the “station wagon effect”. Learn more aboutCO safe boating.
CO on houseboats can be released not only by the motor, but also by the onboard generator. Many deaths have occured on houseboats due to CO accumulating in cabins, and in areas around (and under) the boat where children often swim. Learn more aboutCO safe boating.
Small aircraft pilots are susceptible to CO leaking into the cabin from the engine. Such leaks could be at low concentrations, but over long periods of exposure they could cause heath problems.
Because of their long drives and therefore long exposure periods, truckers are especially vulnerable to low-level CO leaks in the cab. Such leaks can put their lives at risk, as well as the lives of others on the road.
Many people have been sickened, and some have even died, due to CO poisoning at motels and hotels. CO can leak into a traveler’s room from nearby leaky furnaces and hot water heaters. Despite this risk, most hotels do not have CO detectors installed.
The largest group that suffers from CO poisonings are homeowners. CO can accumulate in a home from faulty gas-powered furnaces and water heaters, clogged fireplaces and chimneys, wood burning stoves, running cars in attached garages, and any burning of fuels indoors (such as a grill). Also, some homes or businesses located next to multi-lane, busy streets or highways, can have low-levels of CO present much of the time.
ThePocket CODetector/Dosimeter, can protect your and your family from dangerous levels of CO anywhere. Its loud alarm and bright red light will warn you of dangerously high levels. It is simple to use, weighs less than an ounce, and fits on a key chain. Also, Pocket CO’s digital readout allows you to monitor even low levels of CO.
Oxidation Potential, otherwise reffered to as redox potential, is the measurement of the tendancy of a chemical species to acquire electrons, ane be reduced. Oxidation Potential is measured as a voltage. Greater oxidation potential indicates a greater tendancy to be reduced, and thereby create an electron exchange with other chemicla species.
Ozone has one of the highest oxidation potentials, lower only than flruorine atom, oxygen atom, and hydroxyl radical. Some of the reactions of ozone create the oxygen atom and hydroxyl radical to create an even higher oxidation potential than ozone alone.
Because of the high oxidation potetnail the oxygen molecule has a high capacity to react with many compounds not easiy oxidized by other chemicals. This potential is especially important reactions with some inorganic species such as FE+2 and I-. However, in many cases there is no explicit electron transfer, but rather an oxygen transfer from the ozone molecule to the other compound.
Example of ion exchange oxidation of ozone and iron:
Fe+2 + O3 = FE+3 + O3-
Example of oxygen atom exchange oxidation of ozone and iron:
2Fe2+ + O3 + H2 O → 2Fe3+ + O2 + 2OH-
Both reactions can occur with organic and inorganic compounds. This is just one simple example of ozone oxication reactions.
Recently a water utility in New Mexico was levied with a fine of $144,000 from OSHA for worker safety issues. The primary worker safety issue was “unsafe ozone levels”.
This is the first fine of this magnitude this author is aware of. It is imperative that if you are using ozone in an industrial process you have quality ozone detection devices, and that your employees are aware of the use of these devices and what the levels mean.
For more info see article below:
$144,000 Fine For Water Authority Allegedly Exposing Workers To Ozone
State regulators are hitting New Mexico’s largest water provider with $144,000 in fines, alleging that the utility put employees in harm’s way, according to NM Political Report.
After a six-month probe, the New Mexico Occupational Health & Safety Bureau wrote up the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility for 44 violations, including worker safety problems.
“More than a third of the dollar figure for the fines comes from exposing employees to hazardous levels of ozone, a toxic gas that at high levels can cause serious respiratory problems and trigger asthma attacks,” according to NM Political Report.
“The dispute stems from an incident where an employee discovered a ‘minor leak’ in a pipe in the area of the plant that works with ozone. Water Authority employees appealed to OSHA after being ignored through the internal grievance process, according to an employee with knowledge of the situation who didn’t want to be named in fear of retaliation,” the report said.
The bureau classified the violation as “willful” and “serious,” which means the following, according to the Political Report:
By federal definition, the willful part of the violation means the Water Authority “knowingly failed to comply” with the law or “acted in plain indifference to employee safety.” The serious part of the violation means management put the workplace in a situation that “could cause an accident or illness that would most likely result in death or serious physical harm.”
The bureau argued that the water authority “was aware that there were no [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified] respirators for ozone [and instead allowed its employees to use air-purifying respirators],” according to the Political Report.
The water authority is contesting the charge, per the story:
Water Authority spokesman Davis Morris contended that the ozone exposure levels were actually too low to do any harm. “OSHA said, ‘No, this respirator isn’t rated for working with ozone,’” Morris told New Mexico Political Report. “What we’re saying is you don’t need a respirator at all.”
He later added, “If in the judgement of the [regulators it’s determined that] the use of a cartridge respirator was a mistake in this particular circumstance, it is still not a willful violation as inadvertent, accidental or ordinarily negligent violations are distinguishable from willful [ones].”
OSHA also requires that ozone detection devices are in place, and workers are trained in the operation. In the event the workplace ozone levels are never allowed to rise above these levels, and workers are aware of this, there is no need for a respirator.
The respirators that OSHA recommends for use near ozone are basic carbon filters. As ozone reacts with this carbon filter CO and CO2 are created. These are also toxic gasses at high levels. Also, as the carbon breaks down into CO and CO2 as it should, the filter becomes less effective at removing ozone safely. At what point does the filter stop working? And does the worker know this? For these reasons, we do not suggest the use of respirators, unless absolutely necessary. We suggest the use of quality ozone detectors, and for proper ozone shut-down controls.
For help choosing the right ozone monitor, or for ozone safety training, call our office. We would be glad to help keep your workplace safe.
Ozone leak detection is the main selling point of the PortaSense C16. However, it is also one of the few ozone meters on the market today with a functional integrated datalogger.
The C16 is capable of onboard data logging of your gas measurements. All data logging cables and software are included with the C16. Datalogging is easy to set-up and easy to use.
The C16 is capable of storing 11,520 data points. Data logging intervals of 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes are possible. The follwing data logging is possible
1 minute interval = 8 days of data
5 minute interval = 40 days of data
10 minute interval = 80 days of data
15 minute interval = 120 days of data
The screenshot below shows the datalogging set-up of the C16. A very simple interface is used to set-up your data logging software and downoald.
Data is logged with C16 and downloaded. All data is exported to a CSV file that can be graphed or shown as a table with common spreadsheet software on your computer.
All necessary cables and software are included with the C16 detector for data logging. Should you have any questions on the data-logging software or set-up, feel free to contact our sales engineers who would be glad to help.
Ozone detection and measurement accurately is possible with the Series-500 Gas Detector. This data can also be logged easily with this device to review later, or for reporting purposes.
The Series-500 from Aeroqual has the most user friendly and powerful data logging software in the industry. This great tool will allow for review and production of charts, or tables within the Aeroqual desktop software, or exporting to a spreadsheet format.
The Series-500 has the capability to store data on it’s internal memory. A total of 8,188 data points can be recorded at time intervals from 1 minute to 30 minutes. This will allow for long term data storage on the device. Data logging intervals can be chosen from 1 minute, to any duration the user chooses. At 5-minute intervals the Series-500 can store data for over 28 days.
Screen shot below shows the table and graph view available in the Aeroqual data logging software. User can choose either table or graph mode, and can choose timeframe to capture data from.
Click image for larger view
Screen below shows the Daily View mode. User can choose to show a summary of data showing each day’s summary of min, max, and average captured data.
Click image for larger view
Screen below shows the monitor set-up that can be performed from the Aeroqual Software. Using this softwate the monitor can be plugged into the PC and set-up without having to access the monitor. This is useful for outdoor, or potentially remote monitoring stations. Monitor logging intervals, alarm, and relay set-points can all be changed from your PC.
Click image for larger view
External Data Logger
Also available is an external data logger in the event the Series-500 must remain stationary while data is retrieved and brought to another location. For these purposes we supply the DL-3 data logger.
Using the 0-5 VDC output signal from the S-500 the DL-3 can log and save gas measurements. This handy device is compact and simply unplugs from the cord and can be taken back to the office to download and record the data.
A great case study on the use of the Aeroqual Series-500 was done by the University of Birmingham to evaluate No2 levels real-time in cities.
Due to the portability of the Series-500, and the low level accuracy of the NO2 sensor head, along with data logging the researchers were able to record data in various locations throughout the city quickly and efficiently to determine small areas of dangerous NO2 levels.
The Series-500 was invaluable as it portable, lightweight, and can record data quickly and for long periods of time.
Also available today is a dual sensor NO2 + O3 in the Series-500. This will allow for simultaneous data logging of NO2 and O3. If used with the optional temp and RH meter the Series-500 would be capable of logging data from the NO2, O3, Temp, and RH sensors showing a relationship between the gasses and ambient conditions.