Groundwater Remediation: Ozone against BTEX

While ozone is most commonly used for water treatment, it is also very effective against soil and groundwater pollutants and can be used for groundwater remediation. Ozone has been used to treat a wide variety of soil and groundwater contaminants and can sometimes even be used against contaminants that cannot be removed by any other technology. Ozone breaks down these contaminants leaving only carbon, oxygen, and water as by-products, making it an environmentally safe solution while removing pollutants as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Below is a list of groundwater contaminants that are commonly treated using ozone

Of these substances, one of the most common to be treated by ozone is BTEX. BTEX is a term that refers to mixtures of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers. These aromatic hydrocarbons contaminate groundwater leaving, polluting it with unpleasant odors and, causing a variety of health concerns ranging from mild headaches and nausea to unconsciousness and even death. In fact, benzene has been categorized by IARC as a group one carcinogen and exposure to this chemical has been linked to cancer.

Ozone is great at purifying groundwater because it is highly soluble in water and one of the strongest and fastest acting oxidants available. Ozone has become a popular solution for in-situ BTEX removal because it offers a quicker clean-up time and lower overall costs for remediation.

Oxidation Technologies has conducted some of its own testing to determine the effectiveness of in-situ removal of BTEX and other pollutants using ozone. The diagrams below feature data gathered from a bench test we performed to evaluate ozone demand for a pump and treat system which we later implemented.

Because benzene is so dangerous, we also ran some tests for benzene specifically. The following diagram was generated using data from two separate wells and shows how quickly benzene can be removed when exposed to ozone.

Click here for additional site data using ozone for in-situ remediation.

At Oxidation Technologies, we offer a wide variety of ozone systems that are great for in-situ chemical oxidation. Most common among them are the complete turn-key trailers. Our modular systems allow you to install our system in an existing enclosure on-site. We also offer ozone injection systems which work by dissolving ozone gas in water while off-gassing excess ozone in the process. Many of our systems are available to pilot test which can help guarantee you get the right ozone system to suit your needs.

Trailer mounted ozone systems Modular ozone systems Cabinet mounted ozone systems

 

 

All new ozone systems for remediation applications

Pilot systems currently available

 

Ozone remediation is safe, efficient, and cost-effective. More information on groundwater remediation and our ozone remediation products can be found on our website or by contacting us directly.

The Purifying Power of UV Light

Ultraviolet light is a naturally occurring form of radiation with powerful purifying properties. Over the years, technology has been developed and produced to artificially manufacture UV light as a reliable and cost-effective water treatment option. To learn more about UV light and how it interacts with ozone, click here.

Ultraviolet water purification systems use a shortwave UV lamp called a “germicidal” lamp to destroy harmful substances in water. The frequency of UV light produced by this lamp is deadly to viruses, bacteria, fungi and other harmful microorganisms that can be found in water. A major benefit of using this method is that it is completely chemical-free meaning no potentially harmful chemical residue is left behind and it will not cause unpleasant tastes or odors. There is no risk of ‘overdosing’ or contaminating the water through this process and it is ready to use immediately afterward.

The germicidal lamp emits ultraviolet energy at 254 nanometers which has proved to be the most effective region of germicidal effectiveness. Water enters one end of the purifier and flows through a space between the quartz-sleeved germicidal lamp and the chamber wall. Inside, the system comes equipped with a dual-action wiper mechanism that is used to circulate the water allowing even exposure to the ultraviolet light. It also works as an internal cleaning device.

The lamps within these systems are designed to be effective up to 10,000 hours, or 14 months of continued use. During that time they are able to purify anywhere between 3 and 560 gallons per minute depending on the selected model and water quality. When the bulb runs out, replacement is simple and can be done by hand, requiring minimal disassembly.

The following diagrams display the key components of the Sanitron and Megatron ultraviolet water purification systems. The purple areas indicate the space through which the water flows to be exposed to the cleansing UV light. It is recommended that the purifier be installed horizontally as close as possible to the point of use.

Our full line of UV Systems can be viewed below. UV Systems or replacement lamps can be found below or on our website.

Sanitron Water Purifiers
Model Voltage GPM Inlet/Outlet Power Usage Height Length Width
S17A 120 3 3/4″ NPT 18W 8.1875″ 19.375″ 4.3128″
S23 120 6 3/4″NPT 25W 8.1875″ 25.375″ 4.3125″
37C 120 12 1″NPT 48W 9.5″ 39.375″ 5.6875″
S50C 120 20 1-1/2″ NPT 65W 9.5″ 52.375″ 5.6875″
S2400C 120 40 2″ NPT 140W 11.125″ 52.375″ 6.625″
S2400C 120 70-560 varies varies varies varies varies

New Product: Kynar Fittings

Kynar, or PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), is an extremely durable material renowned for having an outstanding aging resistance. With more than double the strength of PVC, PVDF can withstand harsh and prolonged mechanical abuse and maintain its properties for several years. PVDF is abrasion, corrosion, and fire resistant having been given the highest rating in the Underwriter’s test which indicates that it is both non-flammable and self-extinguishing. Fittings made from PVDF having a working chemical range of -40°F to 250°F and are FDA compliant meaning they are non-toxic and suitable for repeated contact with food products.

Another important feature of PVDF is its chemical resistance. This particular feature makes them the ideal companion for ozone-related systems because they will not easily be broken down by prolonged exposure to ozone. PVDF is resistant against strong inorganic and organic acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, and halogenated solvents. It is superior to all other thermoplastics in handling highly corrosive fluids and has the largest working chemical range.

The Kynar fittings are equipped with a nut that uses a plastic gripper which is designed to ensure a solid grip around plastic tubing. The nut’s internal components, a plastic gripper and a sleeve, tighten around plastic tubing as the fitting is screwed into place. This makes them ideal for use with FEP tubing. The nuts and their internal components are made out of the same Kynar material, guaranteeing a long life and high performance.

With the addition of Kynar fittings to our website we now offer everything you need for complete system setup. These fittings allow you to connect to injectors, and diffusers and other equipment. See the chart below for our full selection of Kynar fittings or check them out on our website.

Male Straight Connectors
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Pipe Thd. NPT Price
KF 10-4-2 1/4 1/8 $3.01
KF 10-4-4 1/4 1/4 $2.94
KF 10-6-4 3/8 1/4 $4.59
KF 10-6-6 3/8 3/8 $4.78
KF 10-8-4 1/2 1/4 $6.11
KF 10-8-6 1/2 3/8 $5.50
KF-10-8-8 1/2 1/2 $5.58
KF 10-10-6 5/8 3/8 $6.93
Union Connectors
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Price
KF 15-4 1/4 $2.56
KF 15-6 3/8 $6.63
KF 15-8 1/2 $7.95
Reducing Union Connectors
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Price
KF 15-6-4 3/8-1/4 $5.62
KF 15-8-6 1/2-3/8 $7.55
Male Elbows
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Pipe Thd. NPT Price
KF 40-4-2 1/4 1/8 $3.25
KF 40-4-4 1/4 1/8 $3.23
KF 40-5-4 5/16 1/4 $3.50
KF 40-6-4 3/8 1/4 $4.70
KF 40-6-6 3/8 1/4 $4.78
KF 40-8-4 1/2 1/4 $5.54
KF 40-8-6 1/2 3/8 $5.60
Female Elbows
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Pipe Thd. FNPT Price
KF 45-4-4 1/4 1/4 $3.60
KF 45-6-4 3/8 1/4 $4.89
Union & Reducing Elbows
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Price
KF 50-4 1/4 $4.10
KF 50-6 3/8 $6.42
Male Branch Tees
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Pipe Thd. NPT Price
KF 60-4-4 1/4 1/4 $4.34
KF 60-6-6 3/8 3/8 $10.32
Union Tees
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Price
KF 70-4 1/4 $5.47
KF 70-6 3/8 $9.33
KF 70-8 1/2 $10.93
Plastic Gripper Nuts
kynar fitting
Part Number Tube O.D. Price
KF K-PG-4 1/4 $470
KF K-PG-6 3/8 $470
KF K-PG-8 1/2 $470

Oxidation Tech on Youtube

Over the past year, the Oxidation Tech Youtube Channel has been growing to provide detailed information on our latest products, and new information on familiar products. Links to and clips from these videos can be found throughout our website and are a great way to learn about the power of ozone and how to use various ozone related products.

Our most recent uploads feature information on the K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test kit including specifications, product information, and demonstrations. These videos are a great way to see the test kit in action and can help you decide if this product is right for you.

Some of our earlier uploads have included information on the S200, D16, and EcoSensors and also include general insight into the utility of ozone. Subscribe to our channel for more information and updates on new and existing ozone products or visit our website to view our full line of ozone products.

Product Update: GAXT to BW Solo

The GasAlert Extreme (GAXT) ozone detector has been a great portable gas sensor for several years. However, due to changing consumer needs, it is being replaced by a new line of portable detectors called the BW Solo O3. This detector is a serious upgrade from the old sensors with better speed and reliability as well as some new features.

The new BW O3 is equipped with a very small sensor (the 1-Series) which is almost a third of the size of the GAXT sensor. Because of this compact design, gas is able to diffuse into it more quickly granting the device a faster response time to changing conditions and more accurate readings. This also allows the detector itself is lighter and slimmer making it easy to handle and keeping it out of your way.

These sensors are also very easy to replace. The BW O3 is designed specifically to make sensor, filter, and battery replacement easy and with a lower risk of damaging internal components. The sensor and filter can both be accessed through a front panel that pops open. Once inside, the sensor and filter are separated from the other internal components by a cover meaning that the circuit board is never exposed during replacement. That being said, frequent sensor replacement should not be necessary as 1-Series sensors are designed to have a 5-year life expectancy and come with a 3-year warranty.

The battery is also easy to replace. You can remove the back to the device with a Phillips head screwdriver and the battery will come out with it. From there it can be replaced with no risk to the internal components.


The BW O3 uses a single button operation system which makes it easier to use while wearing gloves. It also comes equipped with an alligator clip on the back, allowing it to be attached to a belt or pocket. It has a higher operating temperature range, from -40 to 60 C or (-40 to 140 F) and can withstand harsh environmental conditions.

Another cool new feature of the BW O3 is the option for wireless compatibility. The wireless detector allows you to share data with desktop software via without using a dock. You can even pair your device with a smartphone using Honeywell’s Safety Communicator App from which you can set up the detector and choose alarm set points from up to six meters away. The app can also be used to see detailed information on recorded readings such as who performed the reading, when, and on what gas all in real time. This data can be accessed from any device with an internet connection.

Honeywell is offering some great Windows-based and cloud-based software to make it easier to view and organize sensor data. The Windows-based Device Configurator allows you to view and export data, configure alarm set points and deploy firmware updates. Meanwhile, the cloud-based SafetySuite Device Manager features at-a-glance dashboards that show you the alarms and compliance status of connected monitors. With this software, you can also receive email and text notifications of alarms and know that all reports are stored in one place.
Some features the Solo shares with the GAXT sensor are:

  • Vibrating, audible, and visual alarms
  • Internal data logging
  • Multiple built-in languages
  • Concussion-proof housing
  • Real-time readings

Overall the Honeywell Solo is a significant upgrade from the GAXT model and we’re excited to be offering it. The new BW Solo O3 can be found on our website here: https://www.oxidationtech.com/bw-o3.html 

This detector is faster and more reliable than its predecessors making it safer and more effective in the workplace.

Aqueous Ozone: A Better Cleaning Solution

Cleanliness, especially in high-risk environments such as hospitals, plays a crucial role in keeping people healthy and safe. But traditional chemical cleaners gradually take a toll on the human body. Director of environmental services and patient transportation at Cape Coral Hospital, Richard Helvey, began to research the potential aqueous ozone as an alternative to chemical cleaners when he noticed the adverse effects they were having on his staff. 

In an article covering his work (link below), Nicole Bowman writes, “For decades, the environmental services department at Cape Coral Hospital tackled infections using a traditional arsenal of cleaning chemicals which included general-purpose cleaner, a hospital grade disinfectant, glass cleaners, floor cleaners, carpet cleaners, and specialty cleaners.” The most common side effect of long-term exposure to these chemicals on hospital staff is occupational asthma.

According to research conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease and Prevention’s annual National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) the healthcare industry reported a higher prevalence of asthma than any other major industry group. Constant contact with substances such as latex and formaldehyde in addition to a daily barrage of aerosols and other cleaning chemicals puts healthcare workers at high risk for asthma attacks and asthma-related emergency room visits. Concerned for the safety of his staff, Helvey turned to aqueous ozone as an environmentally safe solution that was still effective enough to be used in a hospital setting. 

Aqueous ozone combines regular tap water with ozone gas to create a substance that is attracted to germs, bacteria, and other contaminants. The ozone attaches itself to these soils and breaks them down, turning back into oxygen and water in the process. This results in a residue-free cleaner that doesn’t leave streaks, and more importantly, doesn’t contain harmful VOCs or fragrances.

Helvey and his staff found that not only was aqueous ozone an effective cleaner, it was also an effective deodorizer that worked by breaking down the bacteria that causes odors rather than simply masking the scent. Quoting Helvey, Bowman writes, “We all noted the scent after using it is the same smell you might detect after a thunderstorm — that smell you recognize is ozone.”

Helvey’s work and research led the environmental services department and infection prevention department at Cape Coral hospital to replace all its general-purpose cleaners, glass cleaners, and carpet cleaners with aqueous ozone. They even stopped using restroom deodorizers. Cape Coral became the first of all five hospitals within the Lee Memorial Health System to make this switch. 

In addition to improving the environment for their workers, the hospitals have benefited from saving tens of thousands of dollars on chemical purchasing cost. After the initial equipment investment, the only other cost to use this equipment is water and sewage. “Additional benefits,” Bowman writes. “include reduced chemical inventory storage demands, reduced chemical packaging waste, and reduced supply distribution labor.”

Aqueous ozone has a ton of potential as a general purpose cleaner inside and outside the healthcare environment. At Oxidation Technologies, we sell a variety of ozone equipment including the O-pen and Ozo-pod and Spray Bottle, which all create small amounts of aqueous ozone very simply and on demand. To find out more about these and our other ozone-related products, check out our website.

Click here to read the cited article :
https://www.cleanlink.com/hs/article/Aqueous-Ozone-Controls-Pollutants-And-Protects-Staff–23730

Ozone Sensor SM-X

The SM-X ozone sensor was a replacement sensor for the OS-4, OS-6, and A-22.  However, the SM-X is no longer in production and is now obsolete.

SM-X Replacement Sensor

The SM-6 also used the SM-X as a replacement sensor and also no longer available for purchase.

SM-6 with SM-X

The replacement ozone sensor SM-X (also known as the SM-X-20 or SM-X-2) was paired with EcoSensors OS-4 Ozone Switch, OS-6 Ozone Controller, and A-22 Ozone Monitor. The following options are now available instead:

A-22 Ozone Monitor

A-22 Ozone Monitor

The A-22 is obsolete and there is no replacement sensor option available.  We recommend the following as comparable ozone monitor options to replace your A-22:
D-16 with Ozone 0-20 ppm – https://www.oxidationtech.com/d-16-gas-detector.html
S-300 with EOZ 0-10 ppm – https://www.oxidationtech.com/aeroqual-series-300.html

OS-4 Ozone Switch & OS-6 Ozone Controller

OS-4 Ozone Switch

OS-6 Ozone Controller

The OS-4 and OS-6 Ozone Detectors can be upgraded to use the SM-7/SM-EC electrochemical sensor as an ozone replacement sensor to the SM-6/SM-X.  The new SM-7 will need to be connected to the OS-4 and OS-6 via the wired cable.

SM-7/SM-EC Ozone Sensor

There are two range options for the new SM-7/SM-EC sensor: 0-20ppm or 1-50ppm.  Both range options can be used with the OS-6, but only the 0-20ppm can be used with the OS-4. After you have upgraded to the SM-7/SM-EC then only replacing the SM-EC sensor that’s inside of the SM-7 needs to be done for future sensor replacement.

SM-EC sensor module

The SM-7/SM-EC ozone sensors should be replaced annually as the sensor calibration is good for up to 1 year.

Feel free to contact us with any questions that you have about the SM-X ozone sensor being discontinued.

Used Ozone Equipment for Sale

Looking for a ozone generation system but not wanting to spend the dollars it costs for new equipment? We recently obtained some used ozone equipment that is great bang for your buck.  Worried about buying used equipment because of age, or potential break down? We test all of our equipment before it’s sent out and replace and repair parts to ensure like new operation.  The recent additions to our used equipment is:

 

Ozone Generators:

Ozonia CFV-04

 

 

Oxygen Generators/Concentrators:

OG-500 OGSI Oxygen Generator

OG-175 OGSI Oxygen Generator

Ozone Analyzers:

BMT 963 Ozone Analyzer

Check out all of the used ozone equipment that we currently have for sale.  Don’t see what you are looking for? We are getting used equipment frequently and would be happy to check and see what we have to fit your needs. Give us a call 515-635-5854 or send us an e-mail.

Oxygen Purity Meter

Oxygen purity is important for ozone production.  The better the oxygen purity going into your ozone generator the more ozone can be produced.  Therefore, being able to know the purity of the oxygen going into your ozone generator is important.  We recently released two oxygen purity meters that are able to measure 0-100.0% oxygen.  These units are designed to be placed in line after your Oxygen Generator and before Ozone Generator to measure the purity of oxygen coming from the Oxygen Generator and into your Ozone Generator.  The inlet and outlet connections are 1/2” Female NPT Fittings. Both models are equipped with a relay alarm for low oxygen purity as well as a 0-10 VDC and 4-20mA output signal.

O2 Purity Meter – Low Flow

This unit is capable of measuring 0-100% oxygen in flows at 6- PSI and inline flows up to 12 SCFH (6 LPM).  There are 3 color indicators lights that indicate the current oxygen levels:
Green = above 85%
Yellow = 75% – 85%
Red = Below 75%

An optional upgrade on the O2 Purity Meter Low Flow model would be an LCD display to show current oxygen levels.

O2 Purity Meter – High Flow

This unit is capable of measuring 0-100% oxygen in flows at 100 PSI and inline flows up to 127 SCFH (60 LPM).  This unit is comes with an LED integrated display that shows the current oxygen readout in a resolution of 0.1%.

Oxygen Purity Meter High Flow with display

Optional Add-ons

Both units have a few custom options that depending on your application might be beneficial.  The optional add-ons are:

Wireless Monitoring & Data Logging Kit

This can be mounted next to your oxygen purity meter and connects to the internet which allows you to access the data from anywhere.  You can receive notification via text and e-mail alerts.

Wireless Monitoring & Data Logging Kit

Visual Strobe Light

A strobe would be installed on the unit as a visual indicator when oxygen purity is registering below 75%.

Audible Alarm

An alarm can be installed on the unit to sound when the oxygen purity is reading below 75%.

If you have questions on your current ozone system set up and how these oxygen purity meters would work in your set up, please contact us.

Ozone Safety Updated from OSHA

There have recently been some safety regulation updates from OSHA when it comes to Ozone.  Below is the information on the old guidelines, new guidelines, and information on being compliant with the new guidelines.

 

OLD GUIDELINES

The old OSHA guidelines were based on the permissible level of exposure to a specific amount of ozone based on different intervals of time and the type of work (example: 0.08 ppm for 8 hours per day exposure doing moderate work, and 0.05ppm for 8 hours per day exposure doing heavy work), however, this is not the case anymore.

 

NEW GUIDELINES

The current OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for an 8 hour work day (of a 40 hour work week), is 0.1 ppm time weighted average (TWA) of ozone.

It’s our understanding that in order to be in compliance with the new OSHA regulations (see 29 CFR 1910.1000), implementation of something (monitor or control device) to ensure ozone exposure to employees does not exceed the 0.1ppm TWA during the 8 hour work shift.

 

NEW GUIDELINES EXPLAINED/EXAMPLE
Below is the calculation that can be used for the cumulative exposure for the 8 hour work shift:

(Ca Ta+Cb Tb+. . .Cn Tn)÷8 = E
E is the equivalent exposure for the working shift. (Ozone = 0.1 ppm)
C is the concentration during any period of time (T) where the concentration remains constant.
T is the duration in hours of the exposure at the concentration C.

For example
([0.5ppm x 1 hour] + [0.02 x 2 hours] + [0.052ppm x 5 hours]) ÷ 8 = 0.1 ppm

Ozone levels can be higher than the 0.1ppm standard for a short period of time as long as low levels at other times of the day still equal out to 0.1ppm of ozone over the 8 hour shift.

For example (0.1 all day):
(0.1ppm x 8 hour) ÷ 8 = 0.1

When using this calculation the value of E should never exceed 0.1 ppm of ozone in an 8 hour work shift.

 

WORK PLACE REQUIREMENTS for OSHA

If monitoring equipment is not in place, then protective equipment or other means must be taken to ensure that the permissible exposure limit of 0.1 ppm ozone TWA in an 8 hour work day is meet.  Another OSHA standard is any workers exposed to ozone have the right to know that they are exposed to ozone and the given exposure amount, and informed of the hazards/risks of ozone, as well as given protective measures.

In order to ensure being compliant, we would recommend use of a Ozone Monitoring/Detection Device that is connected to an alarm that triggers when ozone levels exceed the 0.1 ppm limit.  That way you can monitor the length of time ozone levels are above the permissible limits and use the calculation give above to ensure the time weighted average does not exceed 0.1 ppm.

Ozone Monitors that are offered by Oxidation Technologies
Ozone Monitors that are offered by Oxidation Technologies

For more information on ozone safety can be found on our website.