State of the Ozone Water Treatment Industry

Ozone is a widely used agent for water treatment including public drinking water, industrial wastewater, purification of process water, aquariums, bottled water, ground water remediation and aquaculture, among many others. Ozone finds value in these applications because it can provide multiple benefits in water treatment while decomposing back to oxygen after use. The benefits of ozone include:

•Disinfection – ozone is a biocide that can inactivate a wide range of microorganisms including virus and bacteria.
•Oxidant – ozone is capable of directly oxidizing various organic compounds, including those of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in our drinking water sources, as well as organic compounds found in industrial wastewater.
•Advanced oxidation – In combination with peroxide or UV light, ozone can be the base of an advanced oxidation process that can oxidize virtually any organic compound including difficult to treatment materials such as 1,4 dioxane.

This article will touch on some of the major existing applications and some emerging applications for ozone.

Public drinking water treatment
Chart 1 shows the distribution of ozone use in US public drinking water. Ozone provides several benefits to drinking water facilities. These include primary disinfection, taste and odor removal, color removal, removal of inorganic materials such as Fe, Mn and H2S, enhanced filtration via a micro-flocculation effect and removal of certain organic compounds. In a well-engineered process, several of these benefits can be achieved in a single injection of ozone. Being able to accomplish several treatment objectives at the same time make ozone an excellent choice for certain drinking water plants. This explains the growth of ozone for this application.

Municipal wastewater reuse
Because of water shortages caused by growth in water demand as well as loss of water supply caused by drought, more cities are thinking about reusing their wastewater for drinking water, either directly or indirectly. Several facilities have already been built using membrane-based technologies. This is a proven approach but comes with several notable drawbacks. First, you need a find a place to dispose of the waste brine rejected from the RO membranes. In coastal locations, the brine can be rejected to the ocean. In other locations it is not as simple. The second factor is cost, because of the high pressure needed in RO membranes, the electrical demand to treat the water is high.

Ozone in combination with biologically active filters (ozone-BAF) can be used to treat municipal wastewater to achieve high degrees of water purity at lower cost than membrane processes and without the need to dispose of a brine waste. Currently, large scale trials are being run by the Hampton Roads Sanitation District, in Eastern Virginia to demonstrate this technology through their SWIFT project. Other water authorities are also running ozone-BAF pilot trials. If successful, ozone-BAF could provide inland wastewater facilities with a technology to reuse their wastewater for drinking water.

Advanced oxidation processes
Another emerging application for ozone is in advanced oxidation. Advanced oxidation refers to processes that produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH). The hydroxyl radical is one of the strongest and fastest acting oxidants that can oxidize virtually any organic compound. They can be produced in a variety of ways, but ozone with peroxide and ozone with UV are two such methods. The advantage of the ozone routes is that little if any by product is left after complete and pH adjustments are not required. An important application of ozone based advanced oxidation is the removal of 1,4 dioxane from ground water contaminated with solvents. Dioxane is not readily air stripped from water, absorbed on activated carbon, or oxidized by most chemicals. Advanced oxidation by ozone and peroxide has been proven to be effective in removing the dioxane from the water via oxidation. Ozone with peroxide has also found use in industrial wastewater applications where other methods were not able to remove difficult to treat organic compounds. The use of advanced oxidation appears to be a growing technology for water treatment and ozone-based processes are a growing part of this application.

Biosolids reduction
Wastewater treatment plants utilizing the activated sludge process typically produce excess sludge that needs to be removed and disposed of from the process. Ozone has been shown in the literature and in commercial application to offer an alternative method for reducing excess sludge. This process involves exposing a portion of the activated sludge to ozone. Some of the bacteria that make up the sludge are lysed via exposure to ozone releasing COD into the wastewater. Even though some of the cells are damaged or killed, the overall process generally does not show an increase in BOD/COD leaving the process.

Depending on the amount of ozone required per unit of sludge removed and the costs associated with the current handling of the excess sludge, ozone can represent an economical alternative with conventional sludge handling processes. Ozone also offers other potential advantages to the activated sludge process including a reduction in bulking/foaming, scum control and improved denitrification. A number of wastewater treatment plants in Europe have adopted this technology and have realized a 30-40 percent reduction in excess sludge with no loss of wastewater treatment performance. A new installation is planned for the US later this year at a chemical manufacturing plant.

PFAS removal
PFAS are a group of various fluorochemicals including PFOA, PFOS, among others. They are of emerging concern since they are distributed widely in the environment, do not readily breakdown in the environment/human body and can accumulate over time. There is some evidence that they may have adverse impacts on human health. US EPA points to studies of PFOA and PFOS that show: reproductive and developmental, liver and kidney, and immunological effects and tumors in laboratory animals. As a result, the agency is studying regulation of these compounds.

A novel approach to PFAS removal is ozofractionation. Ozofractionation is a form of foam fractionation, a method to remove hydrophobic materials from water. In ozofractionation, ozone is used an oxidant, as well as the foam-forming gas. Proposed advantages for using ozone as the bubble forming gas include co-contaminant reduction and smaller bubble sizes. Smaller bubbles result in higher surface area to volume ratios and thus more material can be captured for a given volume of gas. Formation of hydroxyl radicals around the bubbles may result in negative charges that better hold the PFAS molecule.

Conclusion
Ozone continues to find new applications in water treatment while expanding its existing applications. The future looks bright for the use of ozone in various parts of the water treatment industry.

Click Here to Contact Us Today and speak with an ozone expert!

Source – Anthony Sacco from Water Conditioning & Purification International Magazine (https://wcponline.com/2021/08/15/state-of-the-ozone-water-treatment-industry/)

OXS Ozone Water System

Overview of the OXS Ozone Water System

Overview

OXS Ozone Water Systems will dissolve ozone into water for point of use applications, or water treatment applications where dissolved ozone in water is required. The OXS System is capable of producing up to 100 g/hr of ozone from oxygen with an integrated oxygen concentrator and ozone generator, the OXS Injection Systems also introduce this ozone into water at 100 GPM. For more information on the OXS Ozone Water System, Please Click Here.

How It Works

Main Features

  • One touch ON/OFF switch
  • Ambient ozone safety sensor integrated in central controller
  • CPVC piping is used for maximum ozone resistance
  • Stainless steel ozone compatible pump
  • Ozone produced from oxygen at high concentration
  • Great mass transfer of ozone into water
  • Capable of high dissolved ozone levels
  • Compact design

For more information, as well as purchasing options for the OXS Ozone Water System, Please Click Here.

Custom Ozone Injection Systems

Oxidation Technologies builds a wide variety of ozone injection systems. However, we also customize our wide range of systems with standard optional equipment we offer on any one of our systems. Below are a few examples of custom systems we have provided recently.

OST-40 Ozone Injection System with options:

  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 PPM
  • ORP monitor
  • Water flow switch – turn system ON/OFF based on water flow
  • Ozone off-gas scrubber
  • High ambient temp alarm
  • Internal air compressor
OST-40 Ozone Injection Ssytem

Ozone levels in water can be controlled with either the Dissolved ozone meter, or the ORP meter, or both. The ozone generator will turn OFF when high limit ozone in water, or ORP limits are reached.

An internal air compressor is used to provide compressed air to the system, only electrical power is required for this system. Due to the internal compressor and potential environment, the high temp alarm was also added.

OST-20 with Ozone gas control options:

  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
  • Ozone gas output valves x10
  • HMI touchscreen for ozone level and timer controls
Ozone injection system
OST-20 Ozone Injection System with ozone gas options

This system features ten ozone output valves to distribute ozone to 10 separate cold storage rooms. Ozone gas levels are measured and controlled with remote ozone meters, ozone levels are displayed on the HMI panel. Both controlled ambient ozone levels, and timers are controlled on the HMI panel. This data can all be viewed remotely from any location via an internet connection.

OST-30 Ozone System with two injection systems:

  • Second ozone injection loop for 2 water streams
  • Larger 30-gallon ozone contact tank for water disinfection
  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm for surface sanitation loop
  • ORP meter for water disinfection loop
  • CDU-30 ozone scrubber
  • High ambient temp alarm

One ozone injection system with two separate injection loops.

Injection loop #1 features a 30 gallon ozone contact tank and an ORP monitor for water disinfection. An ORP level of 800 or higher is maintained in this tank to provide disinfection in up to 30 GPM of water.

Injection loop #2 features a standard ozone mixing tank with a high range dissolved ozone meter to provide up to 20 GPM of water with ozone levels of 2.0 – 3.0 for surface sanitation applications.

Additional features of this system include a CDU-30 ozone scrubber for ozone off-gas and a high-temperature alarm. A UV-light system was also provided with this system to be used with the water disinfection ozone injection loop. This removes ozone from water and provides disinfected water with no ozone residual for a sensitive downstream process.

OST-60 Ozone System with 50 gallon ozone contat tank:

  • 50-gallon ozone contact tank
  • Dissolved ozone meter 0-10 ppm
  • Oxygen purity meter
  • Water flow switch

This system features a 50 gallon ozone contact tank to provide additional contact time with ozone and water. A dissolved ozone meter verifies dissolved ozone levels and offers control. The system can be turned ON/OFF with a water flow switch.

An oxygen purity meter is built into this system. This meter provides a digital reading of actual oxygen purity inside the cabinet. A low O2 purity indicator is provided on the enclosure as an alarm.

OST-100 Ozone System options:

  • 50 gallon ozone contact tank
  • Low-range dissolved ozone meter
  • ORP monitor
  • Sanitary ozone transfer pump with VFD and power disconnect
  • Water flow meter
  • HMI touchscreen for automated system operation

This custom system was built to specific requirements by this customer. A 50 gallon ozone contact tank was provided on the system. A large ozone transfer pump with a sanitary impeller was provided with a VFD to achieve a specific water flow-rate through the system. This water flow rate was measured with the water flow meter. Dissolved ozone and ORP are measured and controlled on this system based on water flow-rate and customers’ needs. All this control and set-up is performed with the touchscreen HMI panel built onto this system.

New OST Ozone Injection System

Oxidation Technologies has recently finished testing and started shipping the new OST Ozone Injection System series.  These Ozone Injection Systems are constructed of all stainless steel wetted parts and skid.  Great for food processing and bottled water applications where stainless steel construction is a must.

OST Stainless Steel Ozone Injection System
OST-8 Ozone Injection System

Ozone production rates from 8 – 100 g/hr capable of dissolving ozone in water flows from 20 – 100 GPM.  There is a wide variety of application and uses for the OST Ozone Injection System.

OSX Ozone Injection System
Outline of components of Ozone Injection System

How it works:

Ozone is produced via corona discharge with a high concentration  Ozone Generator.  Ozone is produced from oxygen that is provided with the integrated oxygen concentrator.  Ozone and oxygen are pullled through the ozone generator, and into the water with a Mazzei venturi.  The Mazzei venturi pulls ozone into water via vacuum and mixes this ozone efficiently with water.  Water pressure differntial accross the venturi is prodcued with a stainless teel Grundfos water pump.  

Ozone is mixed with the water in our exclusive ozone contact chamber.  The stainless steel ozone contact chamber is small, but efficient.  Eliminating the large water tank saves cost, space, and makes a more efficient ozone system.  This ozone contact chamber will efficiently mix ozone gas with the water and provide excellent mass transfer of ozone gas with the water.  All excess ozone will be off-gassed through the air vent on the top of the ozone contact chamber.  Water will flow through the ozone contact chamber in a counter current flow from the ozone gas escaping from the tank.  All process water must flow through this tank offering contact time with ozone and water and efficient mixing of ozone and water.

Oxidation Technologies ozone water system
Ozone Injection System flow diagram

For questions about using ozone for your application, call our application engineers today.  You can also view all our ozone injection systems HERE.

Download OST-Series Brochure

Ozone Removes H2S from water

Ozone has recently been implemented in Clearwater, FL for the reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide, (H2S) in drinking water.

Read full story here!

H2S is a common contaminate in both surface and groundwater where high organic content is present.  Ozone can be used to break down H2S into water and sulfide by-products.  This will eliminate the foul smell and taste of H2S in drinking water.

The same results found on this 6.25 million gallon per day plant can be obtained for smaller municipalities, farms, and even homes.  Ozone Generators can produce ozone from ambient air and dissolve that ozone into water to treat H2S and other contaminates in water.

Ozone Injection System
Ozone Water Treatment System

For questions on your potential applications for ozone please call our ozone experts today!

New point of use Ozone Injection System

A brand new ozone injection system to the market, the OXS-8 and OXS-16.

ozone water system
8 g/hr Ozone Water System

The OXS-8 will produce 8 g/hr of ozone to dissolve in up to 20 GPM of water.  Water flows up to 10 GPM will contain an ozone residual of 2.0 PPM.  Sufficient ozone levels for surface sanitation, most food processing applications, and other point of use (POU) ozone applications.

Review diagram below for complete breakdown of components and operation of the OXS-8 Ozone Water System.

Ozone Water System
OXS-8 Ozone Water System Diagram

The OXS-8 Ozone Water System will produce ozone from oxygen, via the integrated oxygen concentrator.  Ozone will be dissolved into water efficiently using a mazzei injector, dedicated ozone injection pump, and ozone mixing tank.

All components necessary for operation are installed on one convenient skid that is ready to use upon delivery.  Simply plumb water in, water out, and electrical power.

For questions on your potential ozone applications, please contact our ozone experts today!